North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 1997

23 - Construction

This sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in constructing, repairing and renovating buildings and engineering works, and in subdividing and developing land. These establishments may operate on their own account or under contract to other establishments. They may produce complete projects or just parts of projects. Establishments often subcontract some or all of the work involved in a project. Establishments may produce new construction, or undertake repairs and renovations to existing structures.

A construction establishment may be the only establishment of an enterprise, or one of several establishments of an integrated real estate enterprise engaged in the land assembly, development, financing, building and sale of large projects.

Establishments classified in this sector are known by a variety of trade designations depending on the scope of the projects they undertake, the degree of responsibility and risk that they assume, and the type of structure that they produce. Prime contractors are primarily engaged in the construction of complete works, while trade contractors primarily undertake a component of a project, under contract to a prime contractor or a principal.

There are two main types of construction produced - buildings and engineering works. Buildings are distinguished by their primary function, such as residential, commercial and industrial. Engineering works include dams; non-building industrial works such as refineries; highways, roads and streets; bridges; sewers; power and communications transmission lines; and similar structures and works.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • manufacturing and installing building equipment, such as power boilers; manufacturing pre-fabricated buildings(31-33)
    • operating highways, streets and bridges(48-49)
    • project management (See 56 Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services)

232 - Trade Contracting

This subsector comprises establishments engaged in one aspect common to different structures, requiring specialized skills or equipment. They are known as trade contractors, and are classified by the specific component they contribute to the total structure or work. Trade contractors normally supply their specialized service under contract to a general contractor. In repair construction, and to a lesser degree in new construction, trade contractors, included in this subsector, may be engaged as "prime contractors", or jobbers, dealing directly with the principals involved.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • providing specialized services of a type related to engineering construction, and not normally performed on buildings or building-related projects (See 2313 Engineering Construction)

2322 - Building Structure Work

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in erecting the basic structure of buildings by pouring concrete; framing with lumber; welding, bolting or tying steel; and placing precast or pre-stressed concrete members. Crane rental services with operator are also included because they support the erection process.

23229 - Other Building Structure Work

This industry comprises establishments, not classified to any other industry, primarily engaged in building structure work.

232290 - Other Building Structure Work

This Canadian industry comprises establishments, not classified to any other industry, primarily engaged in building structure work.

  • Example Activities:

    • Building fireproofing contractor
    • Cathodic protection, installation
    • Concrete damp-proofing
    • Epoxy application, contractors
    • Fireproofing buildings, contractors
    • Waterproofing concrete
    • Welding contractors, operating at site of construction
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