North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007

44-45 - Retail Trade

The retail trade sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing merchandise, generally without transformation, and rendering services incidental to the sale of merchandise.

The retailing process is the final step in the distribution of merchandise; retailers are therefore organized to sell merchandise in small quantities to the general public. This sector comprises two main types of retailers, that is, store and non-store retailers. Their main characteristics are described below.

Store Retailers

Store retailers operate fixed point-of-sale locations, located and designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers. In general, retail stores have extensive displays of merchandise and use mass-media advertising to attract customers. They typically sell merchandise to the general public for personal or household consumption, but some also serve business and institutional clients. These include establishments such as office supplies stores, computer and software stores, gasoline stations, building material dealers, plumbing supplies stores and electrical supplies stores.

In addition to selling merchandise, some types of store retailers are also engaged in the provision of after-sales services, such as repair and installation. For example, new automobile dealers, electronic and appliance stores and musical instrument and supplies stores often provide repair services, while floor covering stores and window treatment stores often provide installation services. As a general rule, establishments engaged in retailing merchandise and providing after sales services are classified in this sector.

Catalogue sales showrooms, gasoline service stations, and mobile home dealers are treated as store retailers.

Non-Store Retailers

Non-store retailers, like store retailers, are organized to serve the general public, but their retailing methods differ. The establishments of this subsector reach customers and market merchandise with methods such as the broadcasting of infomercials, the broadcasting and publishing of direct-response advertising, the publishing of traditional and electronic catalogues, door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, temporary displaying of merchandise (stalls) and distribution by vending machines.

The methods of transaction and delivery of merchandise vary by type of non-store retailers. For example, non-store retailers that reach their customers using information technologies can receive payment at the time of purchase or at the time of delivery, and the delivery of the merchandise may be done by the retailer or by a third party, such as the post office or a courier. In contrast, non-store retailers that reach their customers by door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, temporary displaying of merchandise (stalls) and vending machines typically receive payment and deliver the merchandise to the customer at the time of the purchase.

The non-store retailers subsector also includes establishments engaged in the home delivery of products. This includes home heating oil dealers and newspaper delivery companies.

441 - Motor Vehicle and Parts DealersUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing motor vehicles and providing complementary services, and retailing motor vehicle parts and accessories. The establishments of this subsector are generally specialized in the retailing of particular types of vehicles or in the retailing of particular types of parts and accessories.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • heavy-duty truck sales (See 41 Wholesale Trade)

442 - Furniture and Home Furnishings StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new furniture and home furnishings. These establishments usually operate from showrooms and many offer interior decorating services in addition to the sale of products.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • used furniture and home furnishings retailing (See 45331 Used Merchandise Stores)
    • retailing furniture and home furnishings by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

443 - Electronics and Appliance StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing household appliances, home audio and video equipment, cameras, computers and related goods. These establishments may also retail replacement parts and provide repair services.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing used household appliances, home audio and video equipment, cameras, computers and related goods (See 45331 Used Merchandise Stores)
    • retailing household appliances, home audio and video equipment, cameras, computers and related goods by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

444 - Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies DealersUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a specialized or general line of building and home improvement materials, lawn and garden equipment and supplies, outdoor power equipment, and nursery and garden products.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing used building and home improvement materials, and lawn, garden and outdoor power equipment (See 45331 Used Merchandise Stores)
    • retailing building and home improvement materials, and lawn, garden and outdoor power equipment by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

445 - Food and Beverage StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general or specialized line of food or beverage products.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing a general or specialized line of food or beverage products by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

446 - Health and Personal Care StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing health and personal care products. Drug stores and pharmacies, cosmetics, beauty supplies and perfume stores, optical goods stores, food (health) supplement stores and health appliance stores are included.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing health and personal care products by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

447 - Gasoline StationsUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing motor fuels, whether or not the gasoline station is operated in conjunction with a convenience store, repair garage, restaurant or other type of operation. Establishments that operate gasoline stations on behalf of their owners and receive a commission on the sale of fuels are also included.

448 - Clothing and Clothing Accessories StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing clothing and clothing accessories.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing used clothing and clothing accessories (See 45331 Used Merchandise Stores)
    • retailing clothing and clothing accessories by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

451 - Sporting Goods, Hobby, Book and Music StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing sporting goods, games and toys, sewing supplies, fabrics, patterns, yarns and other needlework accessories, musical instruments, books and other reading materials, and audio and video recordings.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing used sporting goods, hobby goods, books, musical instruments, and audio and video recordings (See 45331 Used Merchandise Stores)
    • retailing sporting goods, hobby goods, books, musical instruments, and audio and video recordings by means of electronic shopping, mail-order or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

452 - General Merchandise StoresUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of merchandise that may, or may not, include a general line of grocery items.

  • Exclusion(s):

    Establishments primarily engaged in:

    • retailing a general line of building and home improvement materials (See 44411 Home Centres)
    • retailing a general line of grocery items (See 44511 Supermarkets and Other Grocery (except Convenience) Stores)
    • retailing a general line of used goods (See 45331 Used Merchandise Stores)
    • retailing a general line of goods by means of electronic shopping, mail-order, or direct sale (See 454 Non-Store Retailers)

453 - Miscellaneous Store RetailersUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a specialized line of merchandise in other types of specialty stores. Florists, office supplies stores, stationery stores, gift, novelty and souvenir stores, used merchandise stores, pet and pet supplies stores, art dealers and manufactured (mobile) home dealers are included.

454 - Non-Store RetailersUS

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing merchandise by non-store retail methods. The establishments of this subsector employ methods, such as broadcasting infomercials, broadcasting and publishing direct-response advertising, publishing traditional and electronic catalogues, door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, temporary displaying of merchandise (temporary stands or stalls), distribution by vending machines, and using the Internet to reach their customers and market their merchandise. Establishments primarily engaged in the direct sale (i.e. non-store) of products such as home heating fuels and in newspaper delivery are also included.

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