North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2017 Version 2.0
This sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and distributing (except by wholesale and retail methods) information and cultural products. Establishments providing the means to transmit or distribute these products or providing access to equipment and expertise for processing data are also included.
The unique characteristics of information and cultural products, and of the processes involved in their production and distribution, distinguish this sector from the goods-producing and services-producing sectors.
The value of these products lies in their information, educational, cultural or entertainment content, not in the format in which they are distributed. Most of these products are protected from unlawful reproduction by copyright laws. Only those possessing the rights to these works are authorized to reproduce, alter, improve and distribute them. Acquiring and using these rights often involves significant costs.
The intangible nature of the content of information and cultural products allows for their distribution in various forms. For example, a movie can be shown at a movie theatre, on a television broadcast, through video on demand, or rented at a local video store; a sound recording can be aired on radio, embedded in multi-media products or sold at a record store; software can be bought at retail outlets or downloaded from an electronic bulletin board; a newspaper can be purchased at a newsstand or received on-line. In addition, improvements in information technology are revolutionizing the distribution of these products. The inclusion in this sector of telecommunications services providers reflects the increasingly important role these establishments play in making these products accessible to the public.
The main components of this sector are the publishing industries, the motion picture and sound recording industries, the broadcasting industries, the telecommunications industries, and the data processing and hosting services industries.
There are establishments engaged in culture-related activities that are classified in other sectors of NAICS. The most important are listed as exclusions below.
- design activities (See 54 Professional, scientific and technical services)
- duplicating information or cultural products in print form, or in the form of optical or magnetic media (See 31-33 Manufacturing)
- performing in artistic productions, and creating artistic and cultural works or productions as independent individuals (See 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation)
- preserving and exhibiting objects, sites, and natural wonders of historical, cultural and/or educational value (See 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation)
- producing live presentations that involve the performances of actors and actresses, singers, dancers, musical groups and artists, and other performing artists (See 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation)
- retailing information and cultural products such as newspapers, books, software and sound recordings (See 44-45 Retail trade)
- wholesaling information and cultural products such as newspapers, books, software, videocassettes, DVDs and sound recordings (See 41 Wholesale trade)
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing newspapers, periodicals, books, databases, software and other works. These works are characterized by the intellectual creativity required in their development and are usually protected by copyright. Publishers distribute, or arrange for the distribution of copies of these works.
Publishing establishments may create the works in-house, or contract for, purchase, or compile works that were originally created by others. These works may be published in one or more formats including traditional print form, electronic and online. Publishers of multimedia products, such as interactive children's books, multimedia CD-ROM and digital video disk (DVD) reference books, and musical greeting cards are also included. Establishments in this subsector may print, reproduce or offer direct online access to the works themselves or they may arrange with others to carry out such functions.
This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing (or publishing and printing) newspapers, periodicals, books, maps, directories, databases and other works, such as calendars, catalogues and greeting cards.
- publishing music (See 512230 Music publishers)
- publishing software (See 51121 Software publishers)
This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing computer software, usually for multiple clients and generally referred to as packaged software. These establishments carry out operations necessary for producing and distributing computer software, such as designing, providing documentation, assisting in installation and providing support services to software purchasers. They may design and publish, or publish only.