National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 Version 1.0

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5 - Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport

This category includes occupations in art and culture, including the performing arts, film and video, broadcasting, journalism, writing, creative design, libraries and museums. It also includes occupations in recreation and sports.

These occupations are linked by subject matter to formal post-secondary educational programs but have, for the most part, a range of acceptable qualifications. Occupations in this category are also characterized by a requirement for creative talent, such as for designers and performers, and for athletic ability in the area of sport.

51 - Professional occupations in art and culture

This major group comprises professional occupations in art and culture. It includes librarians, archivists, conservators, curators, writers, translators and artists.

512 - Writing, translating and related communications professionals

This minor group includes writers, editors, journalists, translators and interpreters. They are employed by advertising, consulting, publishing and multimedia/new-media companies; magazines, journals, newspapers, radio and television networks and stations; sections within companies and government departments that produce publications such as newsletters, handbooks, manuals and Web sites; translation and interpretation agencies; and international organizations, schools, courts, and social service agencies; or they may be self-employed.

5121 - Authors and writers

Authors and writers plan, research and write books, scripts, storyboards, plays, essays, speeches, manuals, specifications and other non-journalistic articles for publication or presentation. They are employed by advertising agencies, governments, large corporations, private consulting firms, publishing firms, multimedia/new-media companies and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • advertising copywriter
    • copywriter
    • essayist
    • interactive media writer
    • literary writer
    • medical writer
    • novelist
    • playwright
    • poet
    • scientific writer
    • script writer
    • specifications writer
    • speech writer
    • technical writer
    • writer

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Editors (See 5122 Editors)
    • Journalists (See 5123 Journalists)
    • Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (See 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations)
    • Song writers (See 5132 Conductors, composers and arrangers)
    • Translators, terminologists and interpreters (See 5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters)
  • Main duties

    The following is a summary of the main duties of some occupations in this unit group:

    Novelists, playwrights, script writers, poets and other creative writers

    • Conceive and write novels, plays, scripts, poetry and other material for publication or presentation
    • May conduct research to establish factual content and to obtain other necessary information.

    Technical writers

    • Analyze material, such as specifications, notes and drawings and write manuals, user guides and other documents to explain clearly and concisely the installation, operation and maintenance of software and electronic, mechanical and other equipment.

    Copywriters

    • Study and determine selling features of products and services and write text for advertisements and commercials.

    Authors and writers may specialize in a particular subject or type of writing.

  • Employment requirements

    • Technical writers usually require a university degree in the area of specialization, such as computer science or engineering.
    • Copywriters usually require a university degree or college diploma in French, English, marketing, advertising or another discipline.
    • Creative writing programs are offered by universities and colleges.
    • Talent and ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, are important hiring criteria.
    • Membership in a guild or union related to the occupation may be required.
5122 - Editors

Editors review, evaluate and edit manuscripts, articles, news reports and other material for publication, broadcast or interactive media and co-ordinate the activities of writers, journalists and other staff. They are employed by publishing firms, magazines, journals, newspapers, radio and television networks and stations, and by companies and government departments that produce publications such as newsletters, handbooks, manuals and Web sites. Editors may also work on a freelance basis.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • advertising editor
    • associate editor
    • contributing editor
    • copy editor
    • editor
    • editorial consultant
    • literary editor
    • manuscript editor
    • medical editor
    • news editor
    • news service editor
    • sports editor
    • technical editor

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Authors and writers (See 5121 Authors and writers)
    • Editorial assistants (See 1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks)
    • Film editors (See 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations)
    • Journalists (See 5123 Journalists)
    • Managing editors (See 0512 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts)
    • Map editors (See 2255 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology)
    • Sound editors (See 5225 Audio and video recording technicians)
    • Translators-revisers (See 5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters)
  • Main duties

    Editors perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Evaluate suitability of manuscripts, articles, news copy and wire service dispatches for publication, broadcast or electronic media and recommend or make changes in content, style and organization
    • Read and edit copy to be published or broadcast to detect and correct errors in spelling, grammar and syntax, and shorten or lengthen copy as space or time requires
    • Confer with authors, staff writers, reporters and others regarding revisions to copy
    • Plan and implement layout or format of copy according to space or time allocations and significance of copy
    • Plan and co-ordinate activities of staff and assure production deadlines are met
    • Plan coverage of upcoming events and assign work accordingly
    • Write or prepare introductions, marketing and promotional materials, bibliographic references, indexes and other text
    • May negotiate royalties with authors and arrange for payment of freelance staff.

    Editors may specialize in a particular subject area, such as news, sports or features, or in a particular type of publication, such as books, magazines, newspapers or manuals.

  • Employment requirements

    • A bachelor's degree in English, French, journalism or a related discipline is usually required.
    • Several years of experience in journalism, writing, publishing or a related field are usually required.
    • Membership in the Editors Association of Canada may be required.
    • Editors who specialize in a specific subject matter may be required to have training in that subject.
  • Additional information

    • Progression to supervisory and management positions, such as editor-in-chief or managing editor, is possible with experience.
5123 - Journalists

Journalists research, investigate, interpret and communicate news and public affairs through newspapers, television, radio and other media. Journalists are employed by radio and television networks and stations, newspapers and magazines. Journalists may also work on a freelance basis.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • book reviewer
    • broadcast journalist
    • columnist
    • correspondent
    • cyberjournalist
    • investigative reporter
    • journalist
    • network reporter
    • news commentator
    • newspaper critic
    • reporter

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Announcers and other broadcasters (See 5231 Announcers and other broadcasters)
    • Authors and writers (See 5121 Authors and writers)
    • Editors (See 5122 Editors)
    • Photojournalists (See 5221 Photographers)
  • Main duties

    Journalists perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Collect local, national and international news through interviews, investigation and observation
    • Write news stories for publication and broadcast
    • Receive, analyze and verify news and other copy for accuracy
    • Arrange for and conduct interviews as part of research and for radio and television programs
    • Research and report on developments in specialized fields such as medicine, science and technology
    • Prepare regular feature columns and stories on specialized topics
    • Write editorials and commentaries on topics of current interest to stimulate public interest and express the views of a publication or broadcasting station
    • Write critical reviews of literary, musical and other artistic works based on knowledge, judgement and experience.

    Journalists may specialize in print, broadcast or Webcast media, in particular issues such as political affairs or entertainment news, or in a particular geographic area.

  • Employment requirements

    • A university degree or college diploma in journalism or a related field such as communications is usually required.
  • Additional information

    • Experienced reporters may advance to editorial positions (print media) or become producers (broadcast media).
5125 - Translators, terminologists and interpreters

Translators translate written material from one language to another. Interpreters translate oral communication from one language to another during speeches, meetings, conferences, debates and conversation, or in court or before administrative tribunals. Terminologists conduct research to itemize terms connected with a certain field, define them and find equivalents in another language. Sign language interpreters use sign language to translate spoken language and vice versa during meetings, conversations, television programs or in other instances. Translators, terminologists and interpreters are employed by government, private translation and interpretation agencies, in-house translation services, large private corporations, international organizations and the media, or they may be self-employed. Sign language interpreters work in schools and courts, and for social service agencies, interpretation services, government services and television stations, or they may be self-employed.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • community interpreter
    • conference interpreter
    • court interpreter
    • interpreter
    • legal terminologist
    • literary translator
    • localiser
    • medical terminologist
    • sign language interpreter
    • terminologist
    • translator
    • translator adaptor
    • translator-reviser

    All examples

  • Inclusion(s)

    • cultural interpreter
    • transliterator
  • Exclusion(s)

    • Authors and writers (See 5121 Authors and writers)
    • Editors (See 5122 Editors)
    • Language instructors (See 4021 College and other vocational instructors)
    • Linguists (See 4169 Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.)
  • Main duties

    Translators and translator-revisers perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Translate a variety of written material such as correspondence, reports, legal documents, technical specifications and textbooks from one language to another, maintaining the content, context and style of the original material to the greatest extent possible
    • Localize software and accompanying technical documents to adapt them to another language and culture
    • Revise and correct translated material
    • May train and supervise other translators.

    Terminologists perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Identify the terminology used in a field of activity
    • Conduct terminological research on a given subject or in response to inquiries for the preparation of glossaries, terminology banks, technological files, dictionaries, lexicons and resource centres, and add to terminological databases
    • Manage, update and circulate linguistic information collected from terminological databases
    • Provide consultative services to translators, interpreters and technical writers preparing legal, scientific or other documents that require specialized terminologies.

    Interpreters perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Interpret oral communication from one language to another aloud or using electronic equipment, either simultaneously (as the speaker speaks), consecutively (after the speaker speaks) or whispered (speaking in a low whisper to one or two persons as the speaker is talking)
    • Provide interpretation services in court or before administrative tribunals
    • May interpret language for individuals and small groups travelling in Canada and abroad
    • May interpret for persons speaking an Aboriginal or foreign language in a variety of circumstances
    • May train other interpreters.

    Translators, terminologists and interpreters specialize in two languages, such as French and English, the official languages of Canada. They may also specialize in another language and one of the official languages. The main areas of specialization include administrative, literary, scientific and technical translation. Interpreters may specialize in court, parliamentary or conference interpretation.

    Sign language interpreters perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Translate sign language to a spoken language and vice versa either simultaneously or consecutively.

    Sign language interpreters work in French and Langue des signes québécoise (LSQ) or in English and American Sign Language (ASL).

  • Employment requirements

    • A university degree in translation with a specialization in translation, interpretation or terminology in two languages including at least one of the two official languages
      or
      A university degree in a related discipline such as languages, linguistics, philology and courses in linguistic transfer and two years' experience as a full-time translator working in two languages, at least one of which is an official language
      or
      Five years of experience as a full-time translator working in two languages, at least one of which is an official language, are required.
    • Sign language interpreters require a college training program or a university certificate in sign language interpretation.
    • Certification on dossier or by examination from the Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council may be required for translators, terminologists and interpreters.
    • Sign language interpreters may require a certificate or certification evaluation in LSQ or ASL.
    • Fluency in three languages is usually required for translators or interpreters working in an international context.
    • Membership in a provincial or territorial association of translators, interpreters and terminologists may be required.
    • Membership in a provincial association of sign language interpreters may be required.
    • Use of professional titles may be regulated in some provinces.
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