Variant of the National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2021 Version 1.0 for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

C - Other than STEM Occupations

Other than STEM occupations (Non-STEM) refer to occupations requiring knowledge and competencies in one or more areas (usually related to the occupation) other than STEM to complete central functions of a job. Fundamental STEM knowledge may be used to varying degrees to support tasks. This category includes a wide variety of occupational areas such as senior management, law, culture, recreation, operations, trades and sales. These occupational areas may require knowledge and/or expertise acquired through formal and non-formal education or training.

C3 - Other than STEM - Health occupations

Other than STEM occupations (Non-STEM) in health, refer to occupations requiring knowledge and competencies in one or more areas (usually related to the occupation) other than STEM to complete central functions of a job. Fundamental STEM knowledge may be used to varying degrees to support tasks. These occupational areas may require knowledge and/or expertise acquired through formal and non-formal education or training.

31200 - Psychologists

Psychologists assess and diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients, provide therapy, conduct research and apply theory relating to behaviour and mental processes. Psychologists help clients work toward the maintenance and enhancement of psychological, physical, intellectual, emotional, social and interpersonal functioning. They work in private practice or in clinics, correctional facilities, hospitals, mental health facilities, rehabilitation centres, community service organizations, businesses, schools and universities, and in government and private research agencies.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • clinical psychologist
    • psychological associate
    • psychologist
    • research psychologist

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Psychiatrist (See 31100 Specialists in clinical and laboratory medicine)
    • Psychology assistant (except university) (See 41403 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers)
    • Psychology professor - university (See 41200 University professors and lecturers)
    • Psychology research assistant (except university) (See 12113 Statistical officers and related research support occupations)
    • Psychometrist (See 41409 Other professional occupations in social science)
    • Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies (See 41301 Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    • Examine and assess behaviour, diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients and provide therapy
    • Help clients manage physical illness and disorders
    • Counsel individuals and groups to achieve more effective personal, social and vocational development and adjustment, and offer mediation services
    • Use standard psychological tests for assessment
    • Plan intervention programs and conduct program evaluation
    • Apply psychological theory and principles regarding behaviour and mental processes such as learning, language development, memory and perception to develop treatment programs
    • Formulate hypotheses and experimental designs, review literature, conduct studies and publish research papers, educational texts and articles
    • Deliver presentations at conferences, workshops or symposia
    • Provide consultation services to government and other organizations.
    • Conduct applied psychology and/or experimental research.

    Sub-specialties include behavioural psychology, child psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, industrial psychology, neuropsychology, social psychology or sports psychology.

  • Employment requirements

    • A doctoral degree in psychology is required in order to use the designation "Psychologist" in Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia.
    • A master's degree in psychology is required for the designation "Psychologist" in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
    • A master's degree in psychology is required in order to use the designation "Psychological Associate" in Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia.
    • A period of supervised practical experience is required in most jurisdictions.
    • Successful completion of the written Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) is required in most provinces.
    • Oral examinations and board interviews are required in some provinces.
    • Registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
    • Written ethics and jurisprudence exams may be required in some jurisdictions.
    • Psychologists can become specialized in a particular area through training and experience.
  • Additional information

    • Psychological associates may be granted permission by provincial regulatory authorities to perform duties normally restricted to psychologists, specifically diagnosing psychological disorders and communicating diagnoses to clients.

32200 - Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists

Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists assess, treat and prevent diseases, conditions, disorders or imbalances of patients' using various forms of treatment including acupuncture, herbology or other holistic health approaches. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres and health clubs.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • acupuncturist
    • traditional Chinese medicine practitioner

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Chiropractors (See 31201 Chiropractors)
    • Doctor of osteopathic medicine (See 31209 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating)
    • Massage therapists (See 32201 Massage therapists)
    • Midwife (See 31303 Physician assistants, midwives and allied health professionals)
    • Naturopathic physician (See 31209 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating)
    • Other practitioners of natural healing (See 32209 Other practitioners of natural healing)
    • Physiotherapists (See 31202 Physiotherapists)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners

    • Diagnose within the framework of Traditional Chinese Medicine the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of patients
    • Explain procedures, risks and benefits of treatments to patients
    • Prescribe and administer treatment such as acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), scraping (Gua Sha), cupping therapy, moxibustion, acupressure, and auriculotherapy
    • May prescribe and administer Chinese manipulative therapy (Tui Na), energy control therapy (Qi Gong) and laser therapy
    • May suggest home care instructions and provide information about life therapies including energy control therapy (Qi Gong), Chinese shadow boxing (Tai Ji Quan) and Chinese food cure recipes (Shi Liao)
    • Maintain patient records
    • Prescribe and administer treatment using raw or granule herbs and other medicines or dietary supplements
    • May collaborate with other health care professionals such as physiotherapists, chiropractors, physicians and psychologists when developing treatment plans for patients.

    Acupuncturists

    • Diagnose symptoms, imbalances, physiological disorders and injuries of patients according to Chinese medicine traditions
    • Educate patients on risks and benefits of treatments
    • Develop and implement treatment plans including acupuncture acupressure, moxibustion, cupping, scraping or electrical current
    • Evaluate and document patients' progress
    • May provide dietary and lifestyle advice including information on life therapies such as energy control therapy (Qi Gong)
    • May develop treatment plans in collaboration with other health care professionals.
  • Employment requirements

    • Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners usually require completion of a four- to five-year diploma program in traditional Chinese medicine from a private institute or completion of a program in traditional Chinese medicine from recognized medical schools abroad.
    • Registration with a regulatory body is required for traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in Ontario and British Columbia, which includes completion of an approved registration examination.
    • Acupuncturists usually require completion of a three- to four-year diploma program in acupuncture from a private institute or completion of some university undergraduate studies in science and training in a related health care discipline or work experience under the supervision of a registered acupuncturist.
    • Registration with a regulatory body is required for acupuncturists in Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia, which includes completion of an approved registration examination.

32201 - Massage therapists

Massage therapists assess soft tissues and joints of the body for treatment and prevention of dysfunction, injury, pain and physical disorders. They work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • massage therapist (MT)
    • registered massage practitioner
    • registered massage therapist (RMT)

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Medical technologists and technicians(3212)
    • Other practitioners of natural healing (See 32209 Other practitioners of natural healing)
    • Physiotherapy assistant (See 32109 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment)
    • Technical occupations in therapy and assessment(3210)
    • Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists (See 32200 Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    • Assess clients by conducting range of motion and muscle tests and propose treatment plans
    • Explain procedures, risks and benefits to clients
    • Administer massage techniques, treating soft tissues and joints of the body through soft tissue manipulation, relaxation techniques, hydrotherapy, trigger point therapy, joint pain and lower grade mobilizations, remedial exercise programs and client self-help programs
    • Suggest home care instructions and provide information about techniques for further postural improvement and stretching, strengthening, relaxation and rehabilitative exercises
    • Maintain records of treatments given
    • May consult with other health care professionals such as physiotherapists, chiropractors, physicians and psychologists when developing treatment plans for clients.

    Massage therapists may be trained in various specialized massage techniques.

  • Employment requirements

    • Massage therapists usually require completion of an 18- to 24-month or 18- to 36-month program in massage therapy from an accredited school
      and
      a period of supervised practical training.
    • Registration with a regulatory body is required in Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario and British Columbia.

32209 - Other practitioners of natural healing

Practitioners of natural healing provide health care to patients using various forms of treatment including herbology, reflexology or relaxation techniques to promote, maintain and restore the holistic health of patients. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, or are employed by clinics, health clubs and spas.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • aromatherapist
    • ayurvedic practitioner
    • herbalist
    • holistic nutritionist
    • holistic practitioner
    • homeopath
    • hypnotherapist
    • naturotherapist
    • osteopathic manual practitioner
    • reflexologist
    • rolfer

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Dietitians and nutritionists (See 31121 Dietitians and nutritionists)
    • Doctor of osteopathic medicine (See 31209 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating)
    • Manual arts therapist (See 32109 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment)
    • Massage therapists (See 32201 Massage therapists)
    • Midwife (See 31303 Physician assistants, midwives and allied health professionals)
    • Naturopathic physician (See 31209 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating)
    • Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists (See 32200 Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    Herbalists

    • Assess patients and advise them on the use of herbs for the treatment of conditions such as arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, skin disorders and stomach ailments
    • May cultivate herbs and manufacture and sell herbal compounds.

    Osteopathic manual practitioners

    • Assess, treat and manage musculoskeletal and other related disorders of the body's structure by moving, stretching, and massaging a patients' muscles and joints to correct biomechanical dysfunctions.

    Homeopaths

    • Assess illnesses and treat them by administering, in chemical or herbal form, a small dosage of a remedy made from natural substances or by suggesting lifestyle changes.

    Reflexologists

    • Assess clients' physical, mental and emotional health
    • Provide advice and feedback to support clients' wellbeing
    • Apply gentle pressure with thumb and fingers to stimulate specific reflex points or areas, usually on the clients' feet, hands, ears and/or face to relieve tension, improve circulation, and promote better health and well-being.

    Holistic nutritionists

    • Evaluate the overall health and wellness of clients and recommend nutritional and life style adjustments to address their health issues and to support health goals.

    Naturotherapists

    • Assess and treat illness and injury through the use of holistic approaches such as herbal remedies, massage, as well as counselling in nutrition and exercise.
  • Employment requirements

    • Homeopaths usually require completion of a three-year diploma program in homeopathy.
    • Registration with a regulatory body is required for homeopaths in Ontario.
    • Other occupations in this unit group usually require completion of training programs specific to their type of practice and some supervised practical training.

33100 - Dental assistants and dental laboratory assistants

Dental assistants assist dentists, dental hygienists and dental therapists during the examination and treatment of patients and perform clerical functions. Dental laboratory assistants assist dental technologists and technicians in preparing and fabricating dentures and other dental devices. Dental assistants work in dentists' offices, community health centres, clinics and in educational institutions. Dental laboratory assistants are employed in dental laboratories.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • ceramic denture moulder
    • certified dental assistant
    • certified intra-oral dental assistant
    • dental assistant
    • dental laboratory assistant
    • denture finisher
    • denture wax pattern former
    • orthodontic band maker
    • registered dental assistant

    All examples

  • Inclusion(s)

    • dental aide
  • Exclusion(s)

    • Dental hygienists and dental therapists (See 32111 Dental hygienists and dental therapists)
    • Dental technologists and technicians (See 32112 Dental technologists and technicians)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    Dental assistants

    • Prepare patients for dental examination and assist the dentist during examinations and dental treatments
    • Sterilize and maintain instruments and equipment
    • Prepare dental instruments, fillings compound and various dental materials
    • Take and develop X-rays
    • Polish teeth and clinical crowns and apply fluoride and sealant
    • Take preliminary impressions for diagnostic casts
    • Educate patients concerning oral hygiene
    • Perform clerical duties such as prepare invoices, process payments, schedule patient appointments, record dental procedures performed and order dental and office supplies
    • May perform intra-oral duties such as remove sutures, take and record vital signs, apply desensitizing agents, topical anaesthetic, anticariogenic agents and coronal whitening, fabricate, place, and remove temporary crowns and restorations, and apply and remove rubber dams
    • May also perform pulp vitality testing as well as periodontal screening and recording.

    Dental laboratory assistants

    • Prepare plaster models and moulds from dental impressions
    • Prepare wax bite-blocks and impression trays
    • Cast gold or metal alloys for bridges and denture bases
    • Pack plastic material in moulds to form full or partial dentures
    • Mould wax over denture set-up to form full contours of artificial gums
    • Make orthodontic bands from gold, silver, stainless steel or other metals
    • Finish metal framework of dentures and polish and buff dentures to obtain natural finish.
  • Employment requirements

    • Dental assistants require completion of an eight-month to one-year college or other program in dental assistance or completion of secondary school with on-the-job training
    • Registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces except Quebec and Ontario.
    • Certification by the National Dental Assisting Examination Board is required to perform intra-oral duties in all provinces except in Quebec, where intra-oral duties are not performed by dental assistants.
    • Dental laboratory assistants usually require secondary school and up to two years of on-the-job training.
  • Additional information

    • In some provinces there are two levels of dental assistants: Level I - chair-side assistant and Level II - intra-oral assistant. Progression from Level I to Level II is possible with education, training and licensure.
    • Dental laboratory assistants may progress to dental technologist and technician positions with training, experience and registration.

33101 - Medical laboratory assistants and related technical occupations

Medical laboratory assistants and workers in related technical occupations perform pre-analysis and pre-testing tasks such as collecting blood and other samples, processing specimens, and preparing special chemicals called reagents for use in testing. They conduct routine medical laboratory tests and set up, clean and maintain medical laboratory equipment. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, clinics, research facilities, post-secondary educational institutions and government research laboratories.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • medical laboratory aide
    • medical laboratory assistant
    • medical laboratory technician
    • phlebotomist
    • phlebotomy aide

    All examples

  • Inclusion(s)

    • blood bank technician
    • renal technician
  • Exclusion(s)

    • Biological technologists and technicians (See 22110 Biological technologists and technicians)
    • Chemical technologists and technicians (See 22100 Chemical technologists and technicians)
    • Medical laboratory technologists (See 32120 Medical laboratory technologists)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    • Collect, label, sort and prepare blood, tissue and other samples from patients
    • Log and validate patient samples and prepare them for testing
    • Set up medical laboratory equipment
    • Prepare chemical reagents to be combined with biological samples for testing
    • Conduct routine laboratory tests and sample analyses
    • Perform quality assurance of testing techniques and record results
    • Clean and maintain medical laboratory and medical laboratory equipment.
  • Employment requirements

    • Medical laboratory assistants and related technical workers require completion of a college certificate program in medical laboratory science.
    • Certification by the Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science is usually required by employers.
  • Additional information

    • Some employers may require medical laboratory technicians to have a diploma.
    • Medical laboratory technicians may progress to supervisory or technologist positions with a combination of additional education, training and experience.

33102 - Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates

Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates assist nurses, hospital staff and physicians in the basic care of patients. They are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, assisted care facilities for the elderly and other health care establishments. Emergency medical care attendant are employed by private ambulance services, urgent care centers or other health facilities.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • health care aide
    • hospital attendant
    • long term care aide
    • nurse aide
    • nursing attendant
    • orderly
    • patient care aide
    • patient service associate
    • personal care attendant - medical
    • psychiatric aide
    • resident care aide - medical

    All examples

  • Inclusion(s)

    • emergency medical care attendant (non-paramedical)
    • emergency medical responder (non-paramedical)
    • first aid attendant
    • medical attendant - patient transfer
  • Exclusion(s)

    • Emergency medical assistant (See 32102 Paramedical occupations)
    • Emergency medical attendant (See 32102 Paramedical occupations)
    • Licensed practical nurses (See 32101 Licensed practical nurses)
    • Other assisting occupations in support of health services (See 33109 Other assisting occupations in support of health services)
    • Personal care attendant - home care (See 44101 Home support workers, caregivers and related occupations)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    • Answer call signals; supply and empty bed pans; bathe, dress and groom patients; serve meal trays, feed or assist in feeding of patients and assist patients with menu selection; weigh, lift, turn, and position patients; shave patients prior to operations; supervise patients' exercise routines, set up and provide leisure activities for patients, accompany patients on outside recreational activities and perform other duties related to patient care and comfort
    • Take patients' blood pressure, temperature and pulse; report or record fluid intake and output; observe or monitor patients' status and document patient care on charts; collect specimens such as urine, faeces or sputum; administer suppositories, colonic irrigations and enemas and perform other procedures as directed by nursing and hospital staff
    • Administer, in emergency situations, first aid to injured or ill individuals within the scope of competencies
    • Transport patients by wheelchair or stretcher for treatment or surgery
    • Carry messages, reports, requisitions and specimens between departments
    • Make beds and maintain patients' rooms
    • Maintain inventory of supplies
    • May perform maintenance tasks such as assisting with the set-up and maintenance of traction equipment, cleaning or sterilizing equipment, maintaining and repairing equipment, and assembling, setting-up and operating job-related equipment
    • May transport patients between care facilities.
  • Employment requirements

    • Some secondary school education and on-the-job training or a personal support worker, nursing aide or health care aide college or private institutional program, or a college nursing orderly program and supervised practical training are required.
    • Completion of specialized courses such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid is usually required.
    • An appropriate class of driver's licence may be required for medical attendants.

33103 - Pharmacy technical assistants and pharmacy assistants

Pharmacy technical assistants perform technical tasks related to preparing medications under a pharmacist's supervision. They also assist in filling prescriptions and managing patient files. Pharmacy assistants perform clerical functions and assists pharmacists and pharmacy technicians with drug dispensing tasks. Pharmacy technical assistants and pharmacy assistants are employed in retail and hospital pharmacies, long-term care facilities and by pharmaceutical manufacturers.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • pharmacy aide
    • pharmacy assistant
    • pharmacy technical assistant

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Pharmacy clerk (See 64100 Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers)
    • Pharmacy technicians (See 32124 Pharmacy technicians)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    • Assess prescriptions for completeness
    • Enter clients' information and prescription details in databases
    • Help pharmacists and other pharmacy staff with preparing, packaging and labelling of pharmaceutical products
    • Assist in maintaining inventories of medications and pharmaceutical products
    • Compound oral solutions, ointments and creams
    • May process medical billing information
    • May price and stock items on shelves.
  • Employment requirements

    • Pharmacy technical assistants usually require completion of up to two-years of a Pharmacy Technical Assistance vocational program.
    • Pharmacy assistants usually require completion of a Pharmacy Assistant college program, ranging from six to twelve months or completion of secondary school and several months of on-the-job training.

33109 - Other assisting occupations in support of health services

Other assisting workers in support of health services provide services and assistance to health care professionals and other health care staff. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, offices of health care professionals, nursing homes, optical retail stores and laboratories, and medical pathology laboratories.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • audiometric assistant
    • audiometric technician
    • autopsy assistant
    • blood donor clinic assistant
    • cast room technician
    • chiropractic assistant
    • clinical laboratory helper
    • medical device reprocessing technician
    • morgue attendant
    • ophthalmic assistant
    • ophthalmic laboratory technician - retail
    • ophthalmic lens grinder
    • ophthalmologist assistant
    • optical laboratory assistant
    • optometrist assistant
    • orthopedic technologist
    • rehabilitation aide
    • therapy aide

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Medical laboratory assistants and related technical occupations (See 33101 Medical laboratory assistants and related technical occupations)
    • Medical technologists and technicians(3212)
    • Operating room technician (See 32101 Licensed practical nurses)
    • Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment (See 32109 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment)
    • Pathologists' assistant (See 31303 Physician assistants, midwives and allied health professionals)
  • Main duties

    This group performs some or all of the following duties:

    Audiometric technicians

    • Under the supervision of audiologists, administer tests such as pure tone hearing screening, impedance tests and noise level measurements using equipment such as audiometers and sound level meters to determine hearing thresholds of patients
    • Instruct patients on test procedures and record results
    • Monitor, check and calibrate auditory equipment
    • May take earmold impressions and fit and adjust hearing instruments.

    Orthopedic technologists

    • Assist orthopedic surgeons in the treatment of orthopedic diseases and injuries by applying and adjusting casts, splints, bandages and other orthopedic devices
    • Assist in the application, maintenance and adjustment of traction equipment
    • Clean and dress wounds
    • Remove casts, sutures, staples and pins
    • Instruct patients and their families and other health care professionals with respect to orthopedic matters.

    Rehabilitation aids

    • Prepare and maintain equipment and supplies
    • Assist in activities for the rehabilitation of patients as directed by health care professionals
    • May perform routine office functions.

    Ophthalmic assistants

    • Take patients' general medical and ophthalmic history
    • Operate ophthalmic testing and measuring instruments to aid ophthalmologists in assessing patients' vision
    • Instruct patient on diagnostic test and record results
    • Assist ophthalmologists in minor office surgery
    • Administer eye drops, ointments and medications as directed by ophthalmologists
    • Clean and maintain ophthalmic instruments and equipment
    • Perform various administrative duties.

    Optical/ophthalmic laboratory technicians and assistants

    • Operate laboratory equipment to grind, cut, polish and edge lenses for eyeglasses according to prescriptions received and fit lenses into frames
    • Make minor repairs for customers such as replacing frame screws or straightening frames
    • Maintain and repair optical laboratory equipment or machinery.

    Sterile processing technicians

    • Operate and maintain sterilization equipment such as instrument washers, sonic sinks, cart washers and steam autoclaves to clean and disinfect trays, carts, linens, supplies, instrumentation and equipment for re-use according to standardized safety practices
    • Reassemble equipment and assemble packs of sterile supplies and instruments for delivery to hospital departments.

    Blood donor clinic assistants

    • Set up and dismantle equipment
    • Prepare and maintain cleanliness of collection areas
    • Maintain supplies
    • Monitor donors throughout procedure and assist with post-donation care and donor reaction care as assigned under the supervision of a registered nurse
    • Record information on donors
    • Label and process donated blood.

    Morgue attendants

    • Assist pathologists at autopsies by laying out surgical instruments
    • Prepare solutions for preservation of specimens
    • Transfer bodies from morgue to examining table
    • Remove organs and tissue specimens, as instructed by attending pathologist, and placing them in preservative solutions
    • Clean and sew up bodies for release to funeral home.
  • Employment requirements

    • Audiometric technicians usually require a specialization in industrial audiometry testing.
    • Orthopedic technologists usually require completion of secondary school
      and
      several months of on-the-job training
      or
      a college orthopedic technologist program.
    • Registration with the Canadian Society of Orthopaedic Technologists is available and may be required by employers.
    • Ophthalmic assistants require completion of a six to twelve month ophthalmic assistants college program or a minimum of one year of on-the-job training under the supervision of an ophthalmologist, and completion of an approved ophthalmic assistant home study program.
    • Certification by the Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology may be required by employers.
    • Health care courses or short-term college programs related to the work of medical therapy aides,  such as recreational therapy programs, are available and may be required by employers.
    • Sterile processing technicians require completion of secondary school and a six- to nine-month sterile processing college program.
    • Completion of secondary school and several months of on-the-job training are usually required for other assisting occupations in this unit group.
  • Additional information

    • Ophthalmic assistants may progress to ophthalmic technician positions with training and experience.
    • Certified Ophthalmic Assistants may also have additional specialty certification such as Registered Ophthalmic Ultrasound Biometrist (ROUB) or Certified Diagnostic Ophthalmic Sonographer (CDOS).
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