National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011

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421 - Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services

4211 - Paralegal and related occupations

Paralegals prepare legal documents and conduct research to assist lawyers or other professionals. Independent paralegals provide legal services to the public as allowed by government legislation, or provide paralegal services on contract to law firms or other establishments. Notaries public administer oaths, take affidavits, sign legal documents and perform other activities according to the scope of their practice. Trademark agents advise clients on intellectual property matters. Paralegals are employed by law firms, by record search companies and in legal departments throughout the public and private sectors. Independent paralegals are usually self-employed. Notaries public are employed by government and in the public and private sectors or they may be self-employed. Trademark agents are employed by law firms and legal departments throughout the public and private sectors, trademark development and search firms or they may be self-employed.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • commercial law clerk
    • corporate paralegal
    • family law paralegal
    • independent paralegal
    • land titles examiner
    • legal researcher
    • notary public
    • paralegal
    • real estate law clerk
    • title searcher
    • trademark agent

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Articling students, Quebec notaries and trademark lawyers (See 4112 Lawyers and Quebec notaries)
    • Legal administrative assistants (1242)
    • Patent agents (See 4161 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers)
  • Main duties

    Paralegals perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Assist lawyers by interviewing clients, witnesses and other related parties, assembling documentary evidence, preparing trial briefs, and arranging for trials
    • Assist lawyers in preparation for mediation and judicial dispute resolutions
    • Prepare wills, real estate transactions and other legal documents, court reports and affidavits
    • Research records, court files and other legal documents
    • Draft legal correspondence and perform general office and clerical duties.

    Independent paralegals perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Represent clients in small claims court and in other lower court proceedings, at tribunals and before administrative bodies
    • Advise clients and take legal action on landlord and tenant matters, traffic violations, name changes and other issues within their jurisdictions.

    Notaries public perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Administer oaths and take affidavits and depositions
    • Witness and certify the validity of signatures on documents
    • May draft contracts, prepare promissory notes and draw up wills, mortgages and other legal documents
    • May arrange probates and administer the estates of deceased persons.

    Trademark agents perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Advise clients on intellectual property matters and represent clients before the Registrar of Trade-Marks on matters including prosecution of applications for registration of trademarks
    • Advise on the registrability of trademarks, trademark licensing requirements, transfer of intellectual property and protection of existing trademark rights
    • Represent clients at proceedings before the Trade Marks Opposition Board and in related proceedings
    • May represent clients internationally in consultation with foreign associates and attorneys.
  • Employment requirements

    • Paralegals in law firms require a bachelor's degree in law or a law college diploma
      and in-house training from a law firm or other legal establishment.
    • Independent paralegals require knowledge of legal principles and procedures usually obtained through industry-sponsored courses and through experience, or through completion of a community college paralegal program.
    • Notaries public are appointed after examination and certification of their qualifications by the governing judiciary in their province or territory. All appointments have specific limitations on the activities they can perform and for specific periods of time.
    • Notaries public require a provincial licence. In British Columbia, membership in the Society of Notaries Public is also required.
    • To be licensed, trademark agents are required to work in the area of trademark law, including the preparation and prosecution of trademark applications for registration, for two years
      and
      To successfully complete the examination conducted jointly by the Intellectual Property Institute of Canada and the Registrar of Trade-Marks, Canadian Intellectual Property Office
      or
      Either one of the above and to be a lawyer entitled to practise in Canada.
    • Trademark agents require registration with the federal Trade-Mark Office.
  • Additional information

    • Notaries public usually receive in-house training and perform their duties in rural or remote areas or in the business offices in which they are employed.

4212 - Social and community service workers

Social and community service workers administer and implement a variety of social assistance programs and community services, and assist clients to deal with personal and social problems. They are employed by social service and government agencies, mental health agencies, group homes, shelters, substance abuse centres, school boards, correctional facilities and other establishments.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • Aboriginal outreach worker
    • addictions worker
    • child and youth worker
    • community development worker
    • community service worker
    • crisis intervention worker
    • developmental service worker
    • drop-in centre worker
    • family service worker
    • group home worker
    • income maintenance officer - social services
    • life skills instructor
    • mental health worker
    • rehabilitation worker - social services
    • social services worker
    • veteran services officer
    • welfare and compensation officer
    • women's shelter supervisor
    • youth worker

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Activities leaders - seniors (See 5254 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness)
    • Educational counsellors (4033)
    • Family, marriage and other related counsellors (4153)
    • Instructors of persons with disabilities (4215)
    • Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
    • Social workers (4152)
  • Main duties

    Social and community service workers perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Review client background information, interview clients to obtain case history and prepare intake reports
    • Assess clients' relevant skill strengths and needs
    • Assist clients to sort out options and develop plans of action while providing necessary support and assistance
    • Assess and investigate eligibility for social benefits
    • Refer clients to other social services or assist clients in locating and utilizing community resources including legal, medical and financial assistance, housing, employment, transportation, day care and other services
    • Counsel clients living in group homes and half-way houses, supervise their activities and assist in pre-release and release planning
    • Participate in the selection and admission of clients to appropriate programs
    • Implement life skills workshops, substance abuse treatment programs, behaviour management programs, youth services programs and other community and social service programs under the supervision of social services or health care professionals
    • Meet with clients to assess their progress, give support and discuss any difficulties or problems
    • Assist in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment programs by tracking clients' behavioural changes and responses to interventions
    • Advise and aid recipients of social assistance and pensions
    • Provide crisis intervention and emergency shelter services
    • Implement and organize the delivery of specific services within the community
    • Maintain contact with other social service agencies and health care providers involved with clients to provide information and obtain feedback on clients' overall progress
    • Co-ordinate the volunteer activities of human service agencies, health care facilities and arts and sports organizations
    • May maintain program statistics for purposes of evaluation and research
    • May supervise social service support workers and volunteers.
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of a college or university program in social work, child and youth care, psychology or other social science or health-related discipline is usually required.
    • Previous work experience in a social service environment as a volunteer or in a support capacity may replace formal education requirements for some occupations in this unit group.
    • Social service workers may be required to be a member of a provincial regulatory body in some provinces.
  • Additional information

    • Progression to professional occupations in social services, such as family and marriage counsellors, social workers, and probation and parole officers, is possible with additional training and experience.

4214 - Early childhood educators and assistants

Early childhood educators plan, organize and implement programs for children between the ages of infancy and 12 years. Early childhood educator assistants provide care for infants and preschool- to school-age children under the guidance of early childhood educators. Early childhood educators and assistants lead children in activities to stimulate and develop their intellectual, physical and emotional growth and ensure their security and well-being. They are employed in child-care centres, daycare centres, kindergartens, agencies for exceptional children and other settings where early childhood education services are provided. Supervisors of early childhood educators and assistants are included in this unit group.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • child care worker assistant
    • child care worker, daycare
    • daycare helper
    • daycare supervisor
    • daycare teacher
    • daycare worker
    • early childhood assistant
    • early childhood education worker
    • early childhood educator - preschool
    • early childhood educator (E.C.E.)
    • early childhood educator assistant
    • early childhood program staff assistant
    • early childhood supervisor
    • preschool helper
    • preschool supervisor

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Child-care centre administrators (See 0423 Managers in social, community and correctional services)
    • Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (4413)
    • Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
  • Main duties

    Early childhood educators perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Develop and implement child-care programs that support and promote the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children
    • Lead activities by telling or reading stories, teaching songs, taking children to local points of interest and providing opportunities to express creativity through the media of art, dramatic play, music and physical activity
    • Plan and maintain an environment that protects the health, security and well-being of children
    • Assess the abilities, interests and needs of children and discuss progress or problems with parents and other staff members
    • Observe children for signs of potential learning or behavioural problems and prepare reports for parents, guardians or supervisor
    • Guide and assist children in the development of proper eating, dressing and toilet habits
    • Establish and maintain collaborative relationships with co-workers and community service providers working with children
    • May plan and organize activities for school-age children in child-care programs before and after regular school hours
    • May supervise and co-ordinate activities of other early childhood educators and early childhood educator assistants.

    Early childhood educator assistants perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Support early childhood educators in carrying out programs that promote the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children
    • Engage children in activities by telling stories, teaching songs and preparing crafts
    • Prepare snacks and arrange rooms or furniture for lunch and rest periods
    • Assist with proper eating, dressing and toilet habits
    • Submit written observations on children to early childhood educators or supervisors
    • Maintain daycare equipment and assist in housekeeping and cooking duties
    • Attend staff meetings to discuss progress and problems of children
    • May assist early childhood educators or supervisors in keeping records.
  • Employment requirements

    Early childhood educators

    • Completion of a two- to four-year college program in early childhood education
      or
      A bachelor's degree in child development is required.
    • Licensing by a provincial or territorial association for early childhood educators (ECE) is usually required.

    Early childhood educator assistants

    • Completion of secondary school is required.
    • Experience in child care is required.
    • Completion of an early childhood education assistant certificate program or post-secondary courses in early childhood education may be required.
    • Licensing by a provincial or territorial association for early childhood educators (ECE) may be required.
  • Additional information

    • Progression to senior positions, such as daycare supervisor, is possible with several years of experience or with experience and advanced ECE qualification levels.

4215 - Instructors of persons with disabilities

Instructors of persons with disabilities teach children and adults using a variety of techniques to facilitate communication, rehabilitation, social skills and increased independence. They are employed in rehabilitation centres, specialized educational institutes and throughout the school system.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • braille instructor
    • instructor of persons with a mobility impairment
    • instructor of persons who are deaf
    • instructor of persons who are hard of hearing
    • instructor of persons with a learning disability
    • instructor of persons with a visual impairment
    • instructor of persons with special needs
    • lip-reading instructor
    • orientation and mobility instructor
    • sign language instructor
    • teacher for persons with intellectual disabilities

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Occupational therapy rehabilitation consultants (See 3143 Occupational therapists)
    • Special education technicians - social and community services (See 4212 Social and community service workers)
    • Special needs educational assistants (See 4413 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants)
    • Special needs teachers - elementary school (See 4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers)
    • Special needs teachers - secondary school (See 4031 Secondary school teachers)
    • Speech and hearing therapists (See 3141 Audiologists and speech-language pathologists)
  • Main duties

    Instructors of persons with disabilities perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Develop individualized education and intervention plans based on special needs of client to facilitate their readaptation and independence objectives
    • Assess individuals in areas such as physical limitations, orientation and mobility skills, and cognitive, social and emotional barriers to establish client rehabilitation or adaptation goals
    • Assist individuals with physical, intellectual, visual and hearing disabilities or multiple disorders to develop life skills and provide job training
    • Instruct individuals with disabilities and their families in the use of rehabilitative techniques, prosthetic devices, wheelchairs and other equipment designed to maximize clients' independence and potential
    • Instruct persons with a visual impairment in reading and writing braille and in the use of special equipment or supports such as human or animal guides, long canes and other adaptive mobility devices
    • Instruct persons who are hard of hearing or deaf in lip-reading, finger spelling and sign language according to individual communication needs
    • Instruct persons who are hard of hearing or deaf in the formation and development of sounds for speech using hearing aids, and other devices and techniques
    • Collaborate with specialists, such as rehabilitation counsellors, speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists, to develop programs for clients' special needs
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of a college program in special education, rehabilitation, orientation and mobility, visual impairment, hearing impairment or intellectual disability is required.
    • A bachelor's degree in special education or a related field such as social work or psychology may be required.

4216 - Other instructors

Instructors in this unit group teach courses, such as motor vehicle or motorcycle driving, sailing and navigation, sewing or other courses, which are outside of educational institutions and not primarily job-related. They are employed by driving schools, fabric retailers and other commercial establishments or they may be self-employed. This unit group also includes modelling and finishing school instructors, driver's licence examiners, who are employed by provincial governments and tutors who provide instruction in elementary or secondary school subjects.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • driver's licence examiner
    • driving instructor
    • instructor, modelling and finishing school
    • motorcycle driving instructor
    • sewing instructor - non-vocational

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • College and other vocational instructors (4021)
    • Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
    • Secondary school teachers (4031)
  • Main duties

    The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:

    • Driving instructors instruct individuals on proper motor vehicle driving skills and traffic regulations, demonstrate and explain the handling and mechanical operation of motor vehicles and supervise individuals during practice driving.
    • Driver's licence examiners conduct road test examinations and evaluate the driving ability of applicants for driver's licences.
    • Sewing instructors give instruction to students in techniques and skills of sewing, tailoring and dressmaking.
    • Modelling and finishing school instructors give instruction on comportment, personal development, make-up application and modelling techniques for fashion shows and magazine advertising.
  • Employment requirements

    • Expertise in the field of instruction must be demonstrated.
    • Driving instructors must obtain special licensing as a driving instructor in the province of employment.
    • Certification by the Canadian Yachting Association may be required for sailing and navigation instructors.

4217 - Other religious occupations

This unit group includes brothers, nuns, monks, religious education workers and others who provide support to ministers of religion or to a religious community and who perform certain functions associated with the practice of a religion. They may perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship or in institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • brother/sister - religion
    • cantor
    • Christian science practitioner
    • deacon
    • missionary
    • monk
    • nun
    • pastoral animator
    • religious education worker
    • Salvation Army field worker

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Professional occupations in religion (4154)
  • Main duties

    The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:

    • Assist at services of public worship and religious rites
    • Provide religious education, spiritual guidance and moral support to members of a religious community
    • Administer programs providing food, clothing and shelter.
  • Employment requirements

    • Requirements range from completion of secondary school education to a university undergraduate degree, depending on the particular occupation and religion.
    • There may be other employment requirements depending on the particular occupation and religion.
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