National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011

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222 - Technical occupations in life sciences

2221 - Biological technologists and technicians

Biological technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals working in fields such as agriculture, resource management, environmental protection, plant and animal biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology and health sciences, or may work independently in these fields. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, manufacturers of food products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology companies, health, research and educational institutions, environmental consulting companies, and resource and utilities companies.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • agricultural technician
    • agricultural technologist
    • agrology technician
    • aquaculture technician
    • bacteriological technician
    • biological laboratory technologist
    • botanical technician
    • fish hatchery technician
    • fisheries technician
    • food bacteriological technician
    • microbiology quality control technologist
    • microbiology technologist (except medical)
    • plant breeding technician
    • seed technologist
    • wildlife biology technician

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Agricultural and fish products inspectors (2222)
    • Biochemistry technologists and biochemistry laboratory technicians (See 2211 Chemical technologists and technicians)
    • Biologists and related scientists (2121)
    • Biomedical engineering technologists (See 2241 Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians)
    • Conservation and fishery officers (2224)
    • Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
    • Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants (3212)
    • Medical laboratory technologists (3211)
  • Main duties

    Biological technologists perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Set up and conduct biological, microbiological and biochemical tests and laboratory analyses in support of research and quality control in food production, sanitation, pharmaceutical production, biotechnology and other fields
    • Apply methods and techniques such as microscopy, histochemistry, chromatography, electrophoresis and spectroscopy
    • Perform experimental procedures in agriculture, plant breeding, animal husbandry, biology and biomedical research
    • Conduct field research and surveys to collect data and samples of water, soil, and plant and animal populations
    • Conduct environmental monitoring and compliance activities for the protection of fisheries stock, wildlife and other natural resources
    • Analyze data and prepare reports
    • Conduct or supervise operational programs such as fish hatchery, greenhouse and livestock production programs.

    Biological technicians perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Assist in conducting biological, microbiological and biochemical tests and laboratory analyses
    • Perform limited range of technical functions in support of agriculture, plant breeding, animal husbandry, biology, biomedical research and environmental protection
    • Assist in conducting field research and surveys to collect data and samples of water, soil, and plant and animal populations
    • Assist in analysis of data and preparation of reports.
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of a two- to three-year college program in a field related to agriculture, biology, microbiology, wildlife or resource management is usually required for employment as a biological technologist.
    • Completion of a one- to two-year college program in a related field is required for employment as a biological technician.
    • Certification with provincial associations is available, but voluntary.
  • Additional information

    • There is limited mobility among occupations in this group.
    • Some technologists and technicians working in support of government and academic research in biology are university graduates.

2222 - Agricultural and fish products inspectors

Agricultural and fish products inspectors inspect agricultural and fish products for conformity to prescribed production, storage and transportation standards. They are employed by government departments and agencies and by private sector food processing companies. Supervisors of agricultural and fish products inspectors are also included in this group.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • agricultural products inspector
    • crop certification inspector
    • dairy products inspector
    • fish inspector
    • fish products inspector
    • fruit and vegetables inspector
    • grain inspector
    • livestock inspector
    • meat inspector
    • plant protection inspector
    • poultry inspector
    • supervisor, agricultural products inspection
    • supervisor, fish products inspection

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
    • Fish graders and meat graders who perform routine quality control duties or tally landed fish (See 9465 Testers and graders, food, beverage and associated products processing)
    • Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
    • Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety (2263)
  • Main duties

    The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:

    • Fish and fish products inspectors inspect fish, fish products, fish handling and processing methods and prepare reports and ensure that regulations are followed.
    • Fruit and vegetables inspectors inspect fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables at inspection centres and prepare reports on crop production and market conditions.
    • Grain inspectors inspect and grade all classes of grain at terminal elevators, monitor the fumigation of infested grain, and examine storage, handling and transportation equipment to ensure that sanitary procedures are followed.
    • Meat inspectors monitor the operations and sanitary conditions of slaughtering and meat processing plants and inspect carcasses to ensure they are fit for human consumption.
    • Plant protection inspectors certify seed crops, oversee the quarantine, treatment or destruction of plants and plant products, and the fumigation of plants and plant product imports and exports.
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of secondary school is required.
    • Government inspectors usually require a bachelor's degree or college diploma in agriculture, biology, chemistry, food processing technology or a related discipline.
    • Inspectors (other than government) may require a bachelor's degree or college diploma in a related discipline.
    • Several years of experience in agricultural production or fish processing are usually required.
    • Completion of in-house training courses is required.
  • Additional information

    • Progression to managerial positions in this field is possible with experience.

2223 - Forestry technologists and technicians

Forestry technologists and technicians may work independently or perform technical and supervisory functions in support of forestry research, forest management, forest harvesting, forest resource conservation and environmental protection. They are employed by the forest industry sector, provincial and federal governments, consulting firms, and other industries and institutions, or they may be self-employed.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • conservation technician - forestry
    • cruising technician - forestry
    • enforcement officer - forestry
    • extension ranger - forestry
    • fire suppression officer - forestry
    • forest fire technician
    • forest survey technician
    • forest technician
    • forestry technician
    • forestry technologist
    • resource officer, forest inventory
    • resource technician - forestry
    • scaler technician - logging
    • scaling co-ordinator - logging
    • silviculture technician

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
    • Conservation and fishery officers (2224)
    • Foresters and forest engineers (See 2122 Forestry professionals)
    • Supervisors, logging and forestry (8211)
  • Main duties

    Forestry technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Conduct, supervise and participate in forest inventory cruises, surveys and field measurements following accepted scientific and operational procedures
    • Assist and perform technical functions in the preparation of forest management and harvest plans using photogrammetric and mapping techniques and computerized information systems
    • Assist in planning and supervise construction of access routes and forest roads
    • Implement, supervise and perform technical functions in silvicultural operations involving site preparation, planting, and tending of tree crops
    • Co-ordinate activities such as timber scaling, forest fire suppression, disease or insect control or pre-commercial thinning of forest stands
    • Supervise and perform technical functions in forest harvesting operations
    • Monitor activities of logging companies and contractors and enforce regulations such as those concerning environmental protection, resource utilization, fire safety and accident prevention
    • Provide forestry education, advice and recommendations to woodlot owners, community organizations and the general public
    • Develop and maintain computer databases
    • Supervise forest tree nursery operations
    • Provide technical support to forestry research programs in areas such as tree improvement, seed orchard operations, insect and disease surveys or experimental forestry and forest engineering research.
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of a one- to three-year college program in forestry technology or in a renewable resource program or forest ranger program is usually required.
    • Certification by, or registration with, a provincial association as a forestry technologist or technician may be required.
    • Certification or licensing as a scaler is required for some positions.
    • In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title "Professional Technologist."
  • Additional information

    • Mobility may be possible to occupations in natural resource and wildlife management and in parks management.

2224 - Conservation and fishery officers

This unit group includes conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers who enforce federal and provincial regulations established for the protection of fish, wildlife and other natural resources and collect and relay information on resource management. They are employed by federal and provincial government departments.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • conservation officer
    • fish and wildlife officer
    • fishery officer
    • forest ranger - wildlife management
    • game officer
    • game warden
    • natural resources officer
    • park ranger

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
    • Fish inspectors (See 2222 Agricultural and fish products inspectors)
    • Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
  • Main duties

    Conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers perform some or all of the following duties:

    • Generate public awareness of fish and wildlife conservation and regulations
    • Conduct patrols by truck, aircraft, boat, or on foot, to ensure compliance with the provincial and federal statutes relating to fish, wildlife and the environment
    • Investigate complaints, arrest violators, prepare briefs and present evidence in court
    • Issue licences, export documents and special permits and collect royalties assessed on fish, wildlife and timber resources
    • Implement and supervise approved techniques in preventing or overcoming damage caused by wildlife
    • Perform resource protection duties, such as inspecting fishing gear and equipment and monitoring fishing activities for compliance with regulations
    • Gather resource data by making inventories of fish, collecting water samples and assisting biologists in scientific research
    • Supervise or provide firearms safety training courses and trapper education courses.
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of a college program in renewable resources management, environmental conservation or a related discipline is usually required.
    • On-the-job training and courses related to law enforcement and resource management are provided.
    • A class-5 driver's licence, pesticide applicator's licence and explosives licence may be required.
  • Additional information

    • Progression to senior and supervisory positions is possible with experience.

2225 - Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists

This unit group includes those who survey and assess landscapes; draw sketches and build models of landscape designs; construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscaped environments; advise clients on issues related to horticulture such as irrigation; breed, cultivate and study plants; and treat injured and diseased trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers and contractors, lawn service and tree care establishments, golf courses, nurseries and greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and national parks, or they may be self-employed.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • arborist
    • golf course superintendent
    • greenskeeper
    • horticultural technician
    • horticulture specialist
    • horticulturist
    • hydroponics technician
    • landscape architectural technician
    • landscape designer
    • landscape gardener
    • landscape technician
    • landscaper
    • lawn care specialist
    • tree service technician

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
    • Botanists (See 2121 Biologists and related scientists)
    • Contractors and supervisors, landscaping, grounds maintenance and horticulture services (8255)
    • Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
    • Landscape architects (2152)
    • Managers in horticulture (0822)
    • Nursery and greenhouse workers (8432)
  • Main duties

    The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:

    • Arborists and tree service technicians examine trees and shrubs to diagnose problems and disease, and apply various treatments such as pruning, spraying, repairing damaged areas and injecting with treatment solutions.
    • Golf course superintendents direct crews who maintain the health and appearance of golf courses and their surrounding landscapes, plant and move trees, and apply fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides and pesticides.
    • Horticulturists plan and co-ordinate the growth and use of plants for landscaping, ornamental uses and other purposes.
    • Landscape designers and landscape architectural technicians and technologists survey and assess sites, prepare drawings, sketches and reports and perform other duties to assist landscape architects in designing landscaped environments.
    • Landscape gardeners plant and maintain private and public lawns and gardens.
    • Landscapers plan and construct landscaped environments which may include trees, shrubberies, lawns, fences, decks, patios and other landscape structures.
    • Lawn care specialists visit clients, assess the health of lawns, and apply fertilizer, pesticides and other lawn care products.
  • Employment requirements

    • Completion of a university or college program in agronomy, arboriculture, horticulture, landscaping, landscape design or landscape technology is usually required.
    • Experience as a landscape and grounds maintenance labourer may be required for golf course superintendents, landscape gardeners and landscapers.
    • An apprenticeship program is available for horticulturists, arboriculturists and landscape gardeners.
    • A provincial licence to apply chemical fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides and pesticides may be required.
    • In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body is required to use the title of Professional Technologist.
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