North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2017 Version 3.0

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31-33 - Manufacturing

This sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in the chemical, mechanical or physical transformation of materials or substances into new products. These products may be finished, in the sense that they are ready to be used or consumed, or semi-finished, in the sense of becoming a raw material for an establishment to use in further manufacturing. Related activities, such as the assembly of the component parts of manufactured goods; the blending of materials; and the finishing of manufactured products by dyeing, heat-treating, plating and similar operations are also treated as manufacturing activities. Manufacturing establishments are known by a variety of trade designations, such as plants, factories or mills.

Manufacturing establishments may own the materials which they transform or they may transform materials owned by other establishments. Manufacturing may take place in factories or in workers' homes, using either machinery or hand tools.

Units that completely outsource the transformation process but own the input materials are classified to the manufacturing sector. Units that completely outsource the transformation process but do not own the materials are classified to merchant wholesalers in Sector 41 Wholesale trade. These units are in fact buying the completed goods from the producer with the intention to resell it. These units may design the goods being manufactured, and may have some say in the manufacturing process.

Certain activities involving the transformation of goods are classified in other sectors. Some examples are post-harvest activities of agricultural establishments, such as crop drying; logging; the beneficiating of mineral ores; the production of structures by construction establishments; and various activities conducted by retailers, such as meat cutting and the assembly of products such as bicycles and computers.

Sales branches or offices (but not retail stores) maintained by manufacturing, refining, or mining enterprises apart from their plants or mines for the purpose of marketing their products are included in Sector 41 Wholesale trade as merchant wholesalers.

311 - Food manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing food for human or animal consumption.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing beverages or tobacco (See 312 Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing)

3114 - Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen fruits and vegetables; frozen entrées and side dishes of several ingredients, except seafood; and fruits and vegetables preserved by pickling, canning, dehydrating and similar processes.

31141 - Frozen food manufacturing

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen fruits and vegetables; and frozen dinners and side dishes of several ingredients, except seafood.

311410 - Frozen food manufacturingCAN

This Canadian industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen fruits and vegetables; and frozen dinners and side dishes of several ingredients, except seafood.

  • Illustrative example(s)

    • blast freezing, on a contract basis
    • concentrates, frozen fruit and vegetable juice, manufacturing
    • French fries, frozen, pre-cooked, manufacturing
    • frozen dinners and side dishes (except seafood-based), manufacturing
    • frozen food entrées (except seafood-based), manufacturing
    • frozen fruit and vegetable, manufacturing
    • frozen fruits, fruit juices and vegetables, manufacturing
    • frozen pot pies and pizza manufacturing
    • soups, frozen (except seafood), manufacturing

    All examples

  • Exclusion(s)

    • freeze-drying fruits and vegetables (See 311420 Fruit and vegetable canning, pickling and drying)
    • freezing eggs (See 311990 All other food manufacturing)
    • manufacturing frozen bakery products (See 31181 Bread and bakery product manufacturing)
    • manufacturing frozen dairy products (See 311520 Ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturing)
    • manufacturing frozen doughs, made from purchased flour (See 311824 Flour mixes, dough, and pasta manufacturing from purchased flour)
    • manufacturing frozen meat products (See 31161 Animal slaughtering and processing)
    • manufacturing frozen seafood products (See 311710 Seafood product preparation and packaging)
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