Farm Product Prices Survey (FPPS)
Detailed information for December 2023
The purpose of the prices series is to collect accurate, up-to-date information on farm product prices received by farmers for agricultural commodities produced and sold.
Data release - February 8, 2024
The series produces provincial data on average prices received by farmers for agricultural products produced and sold. The primary purpose is to provide the pricing component of the Farm Cash Receipts series (record number 3437), which values the agriculture sectors' contribution to the Canadian economy. The prices are also used to calculate the Farm Product Price Index series (record number 5040). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and other federal departments use the data to develop, administer and evaluate agricultural policies and programs. Provincial departments and agencies use the prices for production and price analysis to support provincial stabilization programs. A wide variety of groups and individuals also make use of the data for economic research.
Reference period: Monthly
Collection period: One month period following reference month.
- Agriculture and food (formerly Agriculture)
- Agriculture price indexes
- Farm financial statistics
- Prices and price indexes
Data sources and methodology
The universe includes all Canadian agriculture operations as defined by the Census of Agriculture, as well as all marketing boards, agencies, commissions and federal and provincial government departments that collect data on producer prices or data from which prices can be calculated.
Administrative data is used for most of the commodity price data, however there are three questionnaires used in the collection of some of the commodity price data for the price series.
This is a sample survey with a cross-sectional design.
The sample for the Hay and Straw Survey in Ontario, is selected from the Business Register.
The sample for the Grains and Specialty Crops Prices Survey, is selected from the Business Register - companies which purchase these crops.
Provinces and commodities currently surveyed include:
Ontario - The Ontario Hay and Straw Prices Survey (sample of 125) collects bi-annual data of tame hay and straw prices.
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta - The Grains and Specialty Crops Prices Survey (sample 51 per month) collects administrative data monthly from companies which purchase these crops.
Responding to this survey is mandatory.
Data are collected directly from survey respondents and extracted from administrative files. Where possible, administrative data sources are used in order to reduce response burden. The administrative data come from a variety of sources including: the Grain Farmers of Ontario, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, CANFAX, the Canadian Dairy Commission, the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency as well as numerous auction markets.
Data for the Ontario Hay and Straw Prices Survey are collected by electronic questionnaire.
Data on the Grain and Specialty Crops Prices Survey are collected by electronic questionnaire. Prices are estimated on a monthly basis.
View the Questionnaire(s) and reporting guide(s).
In the day-to-day collection and processing of the prices, great emphasis is placed on the examination and evaluation of prices. Subject matter officers monitor developments in the market, and review price changes both to validate them directly, and to ensure that changes are representative of the product price movement as a whole. A combination of judgment and outlier detection techniques are used to detect errors. In cases where unusual changes are not explained, follow up investigations are made.
When prices data are not obtained for the current month the previous month's price is used or an estimate is made based on the price trend observed for the same commodity in other provinces.
For the most part, data are collected to calculate a weighted average monthly price - that is data on quantities sold and total payments made - prices are reflective of quality sold. Respondents to the Grains and Specialty Crops Prices Survey provide data on quantities purchased enabling weighted average prices to be calculated. For the Ontario Hay and Straw Survey, simple averages of the prices reported are calculated.
Commodities are priced at point of first transaction, where the fees deducted before a producer is paid are excluded (e.g., storage, transportation and administrative costs), but bonuses and premiums that can be attributed to specific commodities are included. Commodity-specific program payments are not included in the price.
The quality of farm prices is evaluated by checking the consistency of these data with other sources or previous occasions. An interpretative analysis is also conducted. Much of the data which goes into the calculation of farm prices comes from administrative programs. Much of it is already audited by the source organizations. Data are analyzed for time series consistency, links to current economic events, issues arising from the source data, and finally with respect to coherence.
Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects which could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.
Revisions and seasonal adjustment
In general, the prices are subject to revision for the current calendar year. In May and November the previous two calendar years may be subject to revision.
Every five years when intercensal revisions are made, further revisions are done if necessary to correct any conceptual differences or inconsistencies in the price series.
No direct measures of the margin of error in the estimates can be calculated. The quality of the estimates can be inferred from analysis of revisions and from a subjective assessment of the data sources and methodology used in the preparation of the estimates.
Every effort is made to ensure that administrative data are conceptually correct for the use to which they are put. Users should be aware that administrative data are generally compiled for an organization's own needs, and not for survey purposes. Any anomalies or inconsistencies detected are verified with the source, and where necessary, adjustments are made to reconcile data with the conceptual framework of our series. The administrative agencies used are considered to be the best source available, and data received from them is judged to be of very good quality, even in those circumstances where adjustments have been made.