Canadian International Merchandise Trade (Customs Basis)

Detailed information for May 2024





Record number:


Purpose: To provide statistical information and analysis of the value of Canada's customs-basis merchandise exports and imports by commodity, province or territory, partner country, and other relevant dimensions.

Data release - July 3, 2024


Information on imports and exports are inputs into the Canadian Macroeconomic Accounts, particularly in the Balance of Payments and Gross Domestic Product, and are used in the formulation of trade and economic policies. Governments, importers, exporters, manufacturers and shipping companies use trade statistics to monitor import penetration and export performance, identify market opportunities, monitor commodity price and volume changes, and examine transport implications of trade flows.

Statistical activity

This activity is part of the Canadian International Merchandise Trade (CIMT) Program. The objective of this statistical program is to provide measures of Canada's international merchandise trade through the production of import and export statistics.

Canadian trade statistics are compiled according to the "general" system of trade as defined by the United Nations Statistical Office. The general trade system is in use when the statistical territory of a country coincides with its economic territory. Consequently, under the general trade system, imports are recorded when goods enter the economic territory of a compiling country, and exports when goods leave the economic territory of a compiling country.

The closing of the statistical month for imports and exports is defined as the last calendar day of the month based on the date of clearance from Customs. Documents received too late for incorporation in the current month are assigned to the month the transaction took place and are published as revisions the following statistical month.

Additional information about the CIMT Program is available through the link that follows.

Reference period: Month

Collection period: Calendar month


  • Balance of international payments
  • Economic accounts
  • International trade
  • Merchandise exports
  • Merchandise imports

Data sources and methodology

Target population

Canadian merchandise imports and exports.

Instrument design

This methodology does not apply.


The administrative data collected in this program are a census. Data are collected for all units of the target population, therefore no sampling is done.

Data sources

Data are extracted from administrative files.

In general, merchandise trade statistics are compiled from administrative records used by Customs agencies to facilitate and oversee the flow of goods across the frontier.

Import data are compiled from Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) B3 forms. When goods are imported into Canada, B3 Canada Customs Coding forms must be submitted to the CBSA and include the description and value of the merchandise, their place of origin, port of clearance, the mode of transport used, etc. These import documents are used in compiling customs-basis import statistics. The CBSA electronically transmits import data from the B3 documents to Statistics Canada on a weekly basis.

Canadian export data are received from multiple sources; they are compiled by Statistics Canada prior to publication.

Data for Canada's exports to countries other than the United States are compiled from Customs declarations submitted to the CBSA. Exporters shipping to non-US destinations are required to submit declarations for their merchandise with the CBSA; Statistics Canada compiles its customs-basis non-US export statistics using these declarations. Exporters may file declarations electronically using the CBSA's Canadian Export Reporting System (CERS) software, G7 Electronic Data Interchange Export Reporting program, or Export Summary Reporting program. The CBSA electronically transmits export data to Statistics Canada on a daily basis.

Data for Canada's exports to the United States are compiled using United States import statistics based on declarations submitted to the United States Customs and Border Protection (USCBP) and received via the United States Census Bureau (USCB). Since 1990, Canada and the United States have exchanged import data; the import data of one partner country are used to derive the export data of the other. This procedure is used for all of Canada's exports to the United States except exports of natural gas and electricity for which data from these sources are not received from the USCB. Data for these two commodities are estimated for the current and previous months using publicly available information and are subsequently replaced as survey and administrative data become available.

For natural gas exports, data from third party sources and trends in historical data from Statistics Canada's Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas (MCONG) Program are used to estimate growth rates for the most recent two months, with the relative increases to price and volume applied to the most recent MCONG results available. Values are implicitly calculated from the price and volume. Estimated data are replaced with MCONG statistics once these become available. For electricity exports, ARIMA models are used to forecast the price and volume for the most recent two months, with Canada Energy Regulator (CER) monthly data from the previous 7 years used as inputs. Forecast movements for electricity price and volume are applied to the actual CER data most recently received to arrive at the value published for the current and previous months. Estimated data are replaced with values from CER export reports once these become available.

Import and export values are disseminated in Canadian dollars and can require conversion from reported currencies. Foreign currencies are converted using the Bank of Canada monthly average based on the daily end-of-day rates.

For data for Canada's exports to the United States, imports must be reported to the USCBP in US dollars for accounting. In turn, these data (in US dollars) are transmitted to the USCB which converts them to Canadian dollars prior to transmission to Statistics Canada.

Error detection

Business rules, validation edits, combination edits, and unit value edits are performed on both import and export micro data during the edit and imputation process.

Business rules are applied to remove out-of-scope transactions, recode incorrect information, or identify transactions for manual review.

Validation edits and combination edits are also applied. Validity checks ensure that a reported variable respects its defined characteristics, e.g., numeric variables are reported as numeric or that valid codes have been provided. Combination edits ensure that logic is maintained between related variables. Edits are normally immediately followed by a corresponding imputation.

Unit value edits may be applied during processing. For each Harmonized System (HS) code, unit values are evaluated, with outliers flagged and the quantity imputed to produce unit values that fall within an expected range.


Both manual and automated imputations are performed on import and export data. If manual corrective action is required, a follow-up with the importer, exporter or their representative may be carried out.


Estimates of late arrival imports are calculated for the current month only and are removed in subsequent releases. Estimates are based on historical patterns.

Data for customs-basis exports of natural gas and electricity are estimated for the current and previous months using publicly available information and subsequently replaced as survey and administrative data become available, as described above under the "Data sources" heading.

Quality evaluation

Transaction-level data are aggregated and subjected to month-over-month and year-over-year analysis to detect errors and explain observed movements.

The models used to seasonally adjust data are reviewed annually by the Economic Statistics Methods Division of Statistics Canada.

Disclosure control

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects which could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

The CIMT Program of Statistics Canada is similar to the statistical programs of most other countries in its use of the 'passive suppression' approach for confidentiality with Customs administrative data. Passive suppression requires that appropriate measures be taken only at the request of importers or exporters who feel that their interests would be harmed by the dissemination of data. The onus of notifying the CIMT Program of suspected instances of the release of confidential data rests with the affected importers or exporters. After receiving and reviewing such requests, data are suppressed if necessary to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

Revisions and seasonal adjustment

Customs-basis merchandise trade data are revised on an ongoing basis for each month of the current year. The previous year's data are revised with the release of the January and February reference months as well as on a quarterly basis. The previous two years of customs-basis data are revised annually and are released in February with the December reference month.

Factors influencing revisions include late receipt of import and export documentation, incorrect information on Customs forms, replacement of estimates with actual figures, changes in classification of merchandise based on more current information, and changes to seasonal adjustment factors.

Revised data are available in the appropriate data tables and statistical products.

Data accuracy

The administrative data used to compile trade statistics are considered to be complete and accurate. Any anomalies or inconsistencies detected are verified with the source and where necessary, adjustments are made to reconcile data with the conceptual framework of the series.

It is not unusual for the accuracy of export statistics to be adversely affected by undercoverage and/or country misallocation. Country misallocation occurs when the country of final destination is inaccurately reported on the Customs documentation. This occurs most frequently when goods are routed through an intermediary country before continuing to their final destination with the intermediary country being reported as the final destination of the goods.


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