Culture Services Trade
Detailed information for 2009
This derived survey is conducted to provide information and analysis on Canada's international trade in culture services.
Data release - April 5, 2012
This statistical activity is conducted to provide information and analysis of the value of imports and exports of Canada's international trade data in services in the culture sector. The unit of analysis is the product as described in the "2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics" (available through the link "Publications" included in the side bar menu above (free)). Culture services cover a wide and complex variety of transactions on products that are generally intangible in nature. The 2004 framework sets out the scope for culture services to include final demand services (such as writing and designing); intellectual property rights for culture products (such as copyright); and content services (intermediate input services that add to or alter the content of a final demand culture good or service.) Examples of content services include graphic design for a book cover and sound engineering for a film.
This derived survey is funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage. Data are available on the international trade in culture services, by type of service and culture framework category, along with cross-tabulations for trade between Canada and selected countries. Examples of culture services include copyright royalties, trademark royalties, film production and distribution, broadcasting, sound recording, performing arts, advertising and architecture services. Culture goods trade data are available separately (see record number 5088).
Various departments and agencies such as the Department of Canadian Heritage (CDH), the Cultural industries Development Fund of the Business Development Bank of Canada, the International Markets Program of Telefilm Canada and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada use these survey estimates. In addition, the data are useful to international agencies such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Reference period: Calendar year
Collection period: February of the year following the reference year.
- Culture and leisure
- Trade in culture goods and services
Data sources and methodology
The universe for culture purposes includes all transactors who reside in Canada who engage in international transactions in culture services. The transactors can be businesses, governments, non-profit institutions, or households.
This methodology does not apply.
Data are extracted from administrative files and derived from other Statistics Canada surveys and/or other sources.
International trade data in culture services are obtained from the Balance of Payments Division (BOP) of Statistics Canada. The BOP data used for this reference period are from the February 14, 2012 annual revisions for 2009 and prior.
The Balance of Payments Division collects much of the detail on commercial services through its comprehensive annual survey of international service transactions of over 3,000 firms in Canada. For more information, please refer to the link "Canada's International Transactions in Services" in the Documentation section.
Culture services data are sourced from the commercial services component of the current account from BOP as follows:
In general, Balance of Payments data on commercial services are compiled from the annual survey of International Transactions in Services. These data are augmented by additional data from several Service Industry Division Surveys (SID) and from administrative data. Information services, royalties and licence fees are compiled from the annual survey of International Transactions in Services and are augmented by SID surveys and administrative data. Advertising and related services data are obtained from the annual survey of international transactions in services. Included also are benchmark projections of expenses in Canada of representative offices of foreign banks as well as representative offices of Canadian banks located in other countries. Architectural, engineering services data are taken from the annual survey of International Transactions in Services, SID surveys and administrative data. Miscellaneous services to business data are based on the annual survey of International Transactions in Services and on Customs information from the International Trade Division, SID surveys and from administrative data. Audio-visual services data are obtained from the annual survey of International Transactions in Services, SID and from administrative data. Statistics are supplemented from various provincial sources and studies. Data for broadcasting are based on survey information from Investment, Science and Technology Division. Estimates of organized sports and performing arts are based on benchmark investigations of receipts and payments by major participants. Finally, personal, cultural and recreational services data are obtained from annual returns filed with Statistics Canada under the federal Corporations Returns Act.
Error detection activities are conducted by the Balance of Payments Division. Data received are compared with previous year's data, and large differences are further investigated. Respondents with no reported transactions are contacted for confirmation. Totals reported are compared with the sum of components and country codes are verified. When available, survey results are compared with data from other sources for validation.
In the case of non-response, data are imputed by the Balance of Payments Division of Statistics Canada using one of the following methods:
- applying the growth rate of a related variable for the same company if such information is available from another data source,
- applying an average growth rate for the variable of interest reported by other respondents in a similar line of business,
- applying results from the previous year to the current year.
Culture services are grouped and allocated to categories in accordance with the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics. Specifically, services trade microdata, which classify services using the Extended Balance of Payments classification, are grouped in accordance with the Central Product Classification (CPC) and category headings used in the 2004 Framework.
Quality evaluations are performed by the Culture Statistics Program in the form of historical trend analysis using subject-matter expert judgment. This method is used to identify anomalies in the data for a given period. This error detection process is conducted at the final stage of aggregation of the culture services trade categories.
Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects that could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.
Revisions and seasonal adjustment
Differences may exist between the previously released and the current data due to a number of factors. The source data that are used to create tabular data for culture services are revised by Balance of Payments Division (BOP) of Statistics Canada on an annual basis. Differences can also result from the treatment of the trade data during processing. When trade data is transformed from a BOP conceptual framework to the 2004 culture framework, a portion of the balance of payments data that cannot be allocated to individual culture categories (primarily due to insufficient detail) are assigned to an 'unallocated' category in the culture trade tabulations. Decisions to reallocate data from the unallocated portion to more meaningful categories are made on an individual basis taking into account factors such as the characteristics of the data, as well as historical trends in the data. Additional adjustments are also applied to the data that may involve re-coding of industry data at a more detailed level than is required by Balance of Payments Division. These adjustments are made in consultation with Balance of Payments Division to ensure consistency in the trade data, as it pertains to culture, between Balance of Payments and the Culture Statistics Program of Statistics Canada.
Data quality of culture services estimates is dependent on the data quality of the underlying sources, and in the way that these sources are combined. Statistics Canada makes every effort to ensure that administrative and survey data are conceptually correct for the use to which they are put. Any anomalies or inconsistencies detected are verified with the source, and where necessary, adjustments are made to reconcile data with the conceptual framework of the culture series. (For additional information, please refer to the link "Canada's International Transactions in Services" in the Documentation section.)
Data are available on the international trade in culture services, by type of service and the 2004 culture framework category, along with cross-tabulations for trade between Canada and selected countries. Examples of culture services include copyright royalties, trademark royalties, film production and distribution, broadcasting, sound recording, performing arts, advertising and architecture services.
Culture goods trade data are available separately.
Exports and imports are valued in current Canadian dollars. Changes may be driven by changes in both prices and volume.
China includes mainland China only while the trade boundary of Mongolia and the special administrative areas of Hong Kong and Macao (formerly Macau) are now treated separately.
For concepts and methods please refer to : "Trade in Culture Services - A Handbook of Concepts and Methods" (81-595-m2007056-eng, free).
- Canada's International Transactions in Services
- Trade in Culture Services: A Handbook of Concepts and Methods