Farm Income in Kind, by Item
Detailed information for 2021
The income in kind series measures the value of agricultural commodities produced on farms and consumed by individuals living on these farm operations.
Data release - May 25, 2022; November 28, 2022 (revised data)
The income in kind series measures the value of agricultural commodities produced on farms and consumed by the farm operators and their families. The home-consumed products are valued at prevailing market prices such that income in kind represents the receipts producers would have received had the product been sold rather than consumed. Agricultural products that are used as inputs in the production of other agricultural products, such as grain fed to livestock, are not considered as income in kind because they form part of the value of the final product.
Agricultural commodities included in the income in kind series are dairy products, cattle, calves, hogs, sheep and lambs, hens and chickens, turkeys, eggs, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, maple products, honey and forest products.
Income in kind data are used in the calculation of Realized Net Farm Income (record number 3473).
Reference period: Calendar year
- Agriculture and food (formerly Agriculture)
- Farm financial statistics
Data sources and methodology
Canadian farm operators and their families, as defined by the Census of Agriculture.
This methodology type does not apply to this statistical program.
Data are collected from other Statistics Canada surveys and/or other sources.
Data are estimated using a number of different data sources, including: Food availability (per person) (record number 3475); Census of Agriculture (record number 3438); Annual Greenhouse, Sod and Nursery Survey (record number 3416); Fruits and Vegetables Survey (record number 3407); Honey Production, Value and Colonies (record number 3419); Maple Products (record number 3414); Mushroom Growers' Survey (record number 3411); Livestock Survey (record number 3460); Milk Sold Off Farms and Cash Receipts from the Sale of Milk (record number 3432); Production of Poultry and Eggs (record number 5039); and data from the Farm Product Prices Survey (FPPS) (record number 3436).
Macro editing is used. Editing is done at the provincial level.
This methodology type does not apply to this statistical program.
Farm income in kind estimates are derived by multiplying an estimate of the quantity consumed by farm operators and their families, by the prevailing market price.
Income in kind quantity:
Dairy products quantity estimates are based on the number of dairy operations on the Census of Agriculture, their average family size from the Census of Population, and an estimate of the average annual fluid milk consumption per capita from administrative data.
Meat (cattle, calves, hogs, sheep, and lambs) quantity estimates are derived from the 'consumed on farms' estimates produced by the agriculture division commodities section. The 'consumed on farms' estimate for sheep and lambs is published in CANSIM table 003-0094. The estimate for cattle and calves is included under 'Slaughter of cattle' in CANSIM table 003-0083, while the estimate for pigs is included under 'Other disposition of hogs' in CANSIM table 003-0102.
Egg quantity estimates are based on the number of Census of Agriculture farm operations producing layers and hatchery supply flocks, their average family size from the Census of Population, and the average annual Canadian per capita consumption (CANSIM table 002-0011).
Potatoes, vegetables, fruits and honey quantity estimates are based on the number of farm operations producing the item as reported on the latest Census of Agriculture, their average family size from the Census of Population, and the average annual Canadian per capita consumption of the commodity (CANSIM table 002-0011).
Maple products quantity estimates are obtained through surveys and administrative data.
Forest products quantity estimates are based on the number of farm households reporting woodland areas on the latest Census of Agriculture and an estimate of the average annual consumption of face cords burned per household.
Poultry (chicken, mature chicken, and turkey) quantity estimates represent the number of birds being consumed by farmers of non-registered farms (farms that don't produce enough birds to require quota), as reported on the latest Census of Agriculture. The estimates of poultry quantities consumed are based on these number of non-registered poultry farms, their average family size from the Census of Population, and the average annual Canadian per capita consumption of the commodity (CANSIM table 002-0011).
Income in kind value:
Once the quantities of the farm products consumed by producers and their families have been established, they are valued using the following data sources.
Dairy products use the annual farm market price from the farm cash receipts series.
Meat commodities use monthly weighted average slaughter prices from the farm cash receipts series.
Poultry and eggs use monthly farm market prices from administrative data.
Maple, potatoes, vegetables, fruits and honey products use the weighted average farm market prices received for the product during the year, from the farm cash receipts series.
Forest products use an estimate of the annual average face cord price.
The quality of farm income in kind estimates is evaluated by checking the consistency of these data within the time series and using estimates from other sources. The farm income in kind series is also a component of the Farm Income series. An interpretative analysis is conducted for the series on its own and as it relates to the other components.
Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects that could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.
Revisions and seasonal adjustment
Annual estimates of farm income in kind are published twice each year, at the end of May and at the end of November. At each release, data for the previous two calendar years are subject to revision. Every five years a historical revision is done based on the results of the Census of Agriculture (record number 3438).
No direct measures of the margin of error in the income in kind estimates can be calculated. The quality of the estimates can be inferred from analysis of revisions and from a subjective assessment of the data sources and methodology used in the preparation of the estimates.
Estimates of the value of income in kind are prepared using a combination of surveys, census and administrative data. These data reflect typical Statistics Canada standards for quality assurance and, therefore, their quality is considered to be good. However, since little information on the consumption patterns of farm families exists, it is not possible to objectively validate the income in kind estimates.
However, it is important to note that the income in kind data is subject to error. Administrative data may contain non-sampling error such as keying mistakes, while survey data may suffer from both non-sampling and sampling error. Users should also note that the quality of individual estimates may not be consistent between commodities or between provinces because the data sources and their quality may vary.