Annual Survey of Service Industries: Book Publishers
Detailed information for 2004
This survey collects the financial and operating data needed to produce statistics on the book publishing industry in Canada.
Data release - June 30, 2006
This annual sample survey collects the financial and operating data needed to produce statistics on the book publishing industry in Canada. The survey also collects detailed information on the characteristics of the businesses, such as type of revenue and type of client.
These data are aggregated with information from other sources to produce official estimates of the national and provincial economic production of the book publishing industry in Canada. The results from this survey provide data to businesses, governments, investors, and associations. These data allow these groups to monitor the growth of the industry, measure performance, allow comparison across similar businesses and to better understand this industry to react to trends and patterns.
Commencing with reference year 2004, this new survey is administered by the Service Industries Program, in collaboration with the Culture Statistics Program. Historical time series data from the previous Culture Statistics Program are available in The Guide to Culture Statistics (online, free of charge, at catalogue number 87-008-GIE). It should be noted that data from this historical time series should not be compared with data from this new survey due to significant differences in coverage and methodology.
Since 2004, the book publishing survey covers a somewhat different set of businesses than in previous years so that data generally cannot be expected to be comparable. The list of names and addresses of businesses is now drawn from a central Statistics Canada database. In addition, a much more rigorous delineation of those companies that are considered part of the culture sector has been applied through the implementation of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). This industry-based classification is a departure from the activity-based classification that was used previously. In addition to these changes in coverage, commencing with 2005, the data are based on a sample of businesses.
The survey is administered as part of the Unified Enterprise Survey program (UES). The UES program has been designed to integrate, gradually over time, the approximately 200 separate business surveys into a single master survey program. The UES aims at collecting more industry and product detail at the provincial level than was previously possible while avoiding overlap between different survey questionnaires. The redesigned business survey questionnaires have a consistent look, structure and content. The unified approach makes reporting easier for firms operating in different industries because they can provide similar information for each branch operation. This way they avoid having to respond to questionnaires that differ for each industry in terms of format, wording and even concepts.
This survey is part of the Service Industries Program. The survey data gathered are used to compile aggregate statistics for over thirty service industry groupings. Financial data, including revenue, expense and profit statistics are available for all of the surveys in the program. In addition, many compile and disseminate industry-specific information.
Reference period: Calendar year
Collection period: January to September
- Business, consumer and property services
- Business performance and ownership
- Culture and leisure
- Financial statements and performance
- Information and culture
Data sources and methodology
The target population consists of all establishments classified to the book publishing industry (NAICS 511130) according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) during the reference year. This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in book publishing.
The annual survey questionnaire covers detailed financial and operating characteristics. In addition, every two years, questions on such topics as titles published, employment and sources of revenue are asked. The questionnaire was developed in consultation with potential respondents, data users and questionnaire design specialists.
This is a sample survey with a cross-sectional design.
Even though the basic objective of the survey is to produce estimates for the whole industry --all incorporated and unincorporated businesses --not all businesses are surveyed. Rather, a sample is surveyed and the portion eligible for sampling is defined as all statistical establishments with revenue above a certain threshold. (Note: the threshold varies between surveys and sometimes between provinces in the same survey).
The frame is the list of establishments from which the portion eligible for sampling is determined and the sample is taken. The frame provides basic information about each firm, including: address, industry classification, and information from administrative data sources (as discussed above). The frame is maintained by Statistics Canada's Business Register, and is updated using administrative data.
Prior to the selection of a random sample, establishments are classified into homogeneous groups (i.e., groups with the same NAICS codes, same geography (province/territory) and ownership (Canadian/foreign controlled)). Quality requirements are targeted, and then each group is divided into sub-groups called strata: take-all, must-take, take-some and take-none.
The take-all stratum represents the largest firms in terms of performance (based on revenue) in an industry. The must-take stratum is comprised of units selected on the basis of complex structure characteristics (multi-establishment, multi-legal, multi-NAICS, or multi-province enterprises, as well as selected establishments whose particular industry characteristics make it essential that they be included). All take-all and must-take firms are selected to the sample. Units in the take-some strata are subject to simple random sampling. In an effort to reduce burden for respondents, units in the take-none strata are not surveyed and administrative data is used to estimate for this portion.
The excluded portion represents a substantial proportion of the industry in terms of number of establishments (78%), but its contribution to the overall industry revenue is only about 5%. These excluded establishments are accounted for in the final estimates through the use of administrative data. However, only basic information is obtained from administrative sources; i.e., total revenue, expenses, depreciation and salaries, wages and benefits. Detailed characteristics such as client base, revenue by type of service, and detailed expense items are collected only for surveyed establishments.
The sample size for reference year 2004 was 237 collection entities.
Responding to this survey is mandatory.
Data are collected directly from survey respondents and extracted from administrative files.
Data are collected through a mail-out/mail-back process, while providing respondents with the option of telephone or other electronic filing methods.
Follow-up procedures are applied when a questionnaire has not been received after a pre-specified period.
View the Questionnaire(s) and reporting guide(s) .
Data are examined for inconsistencies and errors using automated edits coupled with analytical review. Where possible, data will be verified using alternate sources.
Partial records are imputed to make them complete. Data for non-respondents are imputed using donor imputation, administrative data, or historical data.
As part of the estimation process, survey data are weighted and combined with administrative data to produce final industry estimates.
Prior to publication, combined survey results are analyzed for quality; in general, this includes a detailed review of individual responses (especially for the largest companies), general economic conditions, historic trends, and comparisons with administrative data (e.g., income tax, goods and services tax, payroll deductions records, industry and trade association sources).
As of 2004, the survey covers a somewhat different set of businesses than in previous years so that data generally cannot be expected to be comparable. The list of names and addresses of businesses is now drawn from a central Statistics Canada data base. Also, a much more rigorous delineation of those companies that are considered part of the culture sector has been applied through the implementation of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). This industry-based classification is a departure from the activity-based classification that was used previously. In addition to these changes in coverage, commencing with 2004, the data are based on a sample of businesses which has affected our ability to publish in detail some culture variables.
Despite these changes, several data points for two earlier survey years have been produced so that key trends can still be determined. These data represent estimates of historical data that would have been produced using this new coverage and methodology for those years. This information is included in the 2004 data release.
Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects that could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.
Revisions and seasonal adjustment
This methodology does not apply to this survey.
While considerable effort is made to ensure high standards throughout all stages of collection and processing, the resulting estimates are inevitably subject to a certain degree of error. These errors can be broken down into two major types: non-sampling and sampling.
Non-sampling error is not related to sampling and may occur for many reasons. For example, non-response is an important source of non-sampling error. Population coverage, differences in the interpretation of questions, incorrect information from respondents, and mistakes in recording, coding and processing data are other examples of non-sampling errors.
Of the sample units contributing to the estimate, the weighted response rate was 77% of total industry revenue, after accounting for firms that have gone out of business, have been reclassified to a different industry, are inactive or are duplicates on the frame.
Sampling error occurs because population estimates are derived from a sample of the population rather than the entire population. Sampling error depends on factors such as sample size, sampling design, and the method of estimation. An important property of probability sampling is that sampling error can be computed from the sample itself by using a statistical measure called the coefficient of variation (CV). The assumption is that over repeated surveys, the relative difference between a sample estimate and the estimate that would have been obtained from an enumeration of all units in the universe would be less than twice the CV, 95 times out of 100. The range of acceptable data values yielded by a sample is called a confidence interval. Confidence intervals can be constructed around the estimate using the CV. First, we calculate the standard error by multiplying the sample estimate by the CV. The sample estimate plus or minus twice the standard error is then referred to as a 95% confidence interval.
For the Book Publishers Survey, CVs were calculated for each estimate. Generally, the more commonly reported variables obtained excellent CVs (5% or less), while the less commonly reported variables were associated with higher but still very good CVs (under 10%). The CVs are available upon request.
The qualities of CVs are rated as follows:
Excellent 0.01% to 4.99%
Very good 5.00% to 9.99%
Good 10.00% to 14.99%
Acceptable 15.00% to 24.99%
Use with caution 25.00% to 34.99%
Unreliable 35.00% or higher.