National Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Income and by Expenditure Accounts

Summary of changes

Activity on this program started: 1961

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2019

Data on GDP for the fourth quarter have been released along with revised data from the first, second and third quarters of 2019. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Data on natural resources for the fourth quarter of 2019 have been released along with revised data back to the first quarter of 2019. Additionally, certain estimates have been revised back to 2007 in order to incorporate a detailed split of services related to the energy subsector.

Reference period of change - third quarter 2019

Data on GDP for the third quarter have been released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2016. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Data on natural resources for the third quarter of 2019 have been released along with revised data back to the first quarter of 2016. This release also reflects updates to employment estimates back to the first quarter of 2007.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2019

Data on GDP for the second quarter of 2019 have been released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2019. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2019

Data on GDP for the first quarter of 2019 have been released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2018. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2018

Data on GDP for the fourth quarter have been released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2018. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Incorporating the cannabis market in the national economic accounts, fourth quarter 2018 (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/13-605-x/2019001/article/00003-eng.htm) The fourth quarter 2018 release of the national economic accounts includes estimates of the legal and illegal economic activities related to cannabis production, distribution and consumption for non-medical and medical use. Prior to this release, only the production, distribution and consumption activities related to legal use for medical purposes were recorded.

Reference period of change - third quarter 2018

Data on GDP for the third quarter have been released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2015. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

The 2015 to 2017 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/13-605-x/2018001/article/54968-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2015 to 2017 have been released. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2018

Data on GDP for the second quarter have been released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2018. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2018

Data on GDP for the first quarter were released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2017 through the fourth quarter of 2017. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2017

Data on GDP for the fourth quarter of 2017 were released along with revised data from the first quarter of 2017 through the third quarter of 2017. These data incorporate new and revised data, as well as updated data on seasonal trends.

Reference period of change - third quarter 2017

The 2014 to 2016 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2017001/article/54882-eng.htm). This article describes the revisions to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Income and by Expenditure Accounts for the period from 2014 to 2016. These data follow the November 2017 release of the 2016 Provincial and Territorial Economic Accounts estimates, which include revisions to the 2014 and 2015 period.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2017

Revision to Quarterly Income and Expenditure Accounts: 1961 to 1980 (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/13-605-x/2017001/article/14839-eng.htm). Users of macroeconomic statistics require long time series in order to understand economic cycles, forecast and conduct economic modeling. In general the longer the time series the better users are able to understand the economy. Statistics Canada has been producing macroeconomic account statistics since the 1930s. Over the last 80 plus years these statistics have evolved due to the changing nature of the economy, the development of international macroeconomic accounting standards and the development of new statistical methods and processes.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2017

Carbon Pricing in the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/13-605-x/2017001/article/14838-eng.htm). The Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change (Pan-Canadian Framework) was introduced by the Government of Canada in 2016, in effort to combat climate change (Environment and Climate Change Canada). Under the framework, Canadian jurisdictions are required to price carbon emissions by 2018.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2016

The 2013 to 2015 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/13-605-x/2016002/article/14685-eng.htm). Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2013 to 2015 have been released. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2015

Statistics Canada releases an estimate of capital expenditure from the Capital and Repair Expenditure Survey and an estimate of gross fixed capital formation as part of the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts. The note Adjustments applied to capital expenditure estimates to achieve gross fixed capital formation (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2015013/article/14302-eng.htm) will explain and provide the adjustments applied to the capital expenditure estimate to achieve the measure of gross fixed capital formation.

The note Reconciling Canadian-U.S. measures of household disposable income and household debt (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2015013/article/14304-eng.htm) provides users with a reconciliation between Canadian and U.S. measures of household disposable income, debt and the household credit market debt to disposable income ratio.

Reference period of change - third quarter 2015

The article Household debt service ratio - Interest and principal (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2015006/article/14219-eng.htm) describes new quarterly estimates of household sector debt payments (mortgage and non-mortgage), including both interest and principal components, from 1990 to the present.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2015

Estimates of the underground economy by province and territory for the period 2007 to 2012 are now available for the first time. The objective of the technical note Methodology for measuring the underground economy by province and territory (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2015004/article/14166-eng.htm) is to explain how the methodology employed to derive upper-bound estimates of the underground economy for the provinces and territories differs from that used to derive national estimates.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2015

A preview of the 2015 comprehensive revision of the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2015003/article/14153-eng.htm) The Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (CSMA) is a source of invaluable information for business, governments and citizens. These accounts provide users with important insights into the inner-workings of the economy, current economic trends and interactions between the various sectors of the economy. In order for these accounts to remain relevant, the underlying concepts, methods, classification systems and data sources need to be periodically updated.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2014

The article The 2011 to 2013 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2014006/article/14109-eng.htm) describes the revisions to the Gross Domestic Product by Income and by Expenditure Accounts for the period from 2011 to 2013. These data are released at the same time as the 2013 Provincial and Territorial Economic Accounts estimates, which include revisions to the 2011 and 2012 period.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2014

Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts revision process and calendar: an overview (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2014001/article/11911-eng.htm) Statistical revisions are carried out regularly in the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA) in order to incorporate the most current information from censuses, annual surveys, administrative statistics, public accounts, etc., and to implement improved estimation methods.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2013

Statistical revisions are regularly applied to the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts in order to incorporate the most current information from censuses, annual surveys, administrative statistics, public accounts, etc., and to implement improved estimation methods. Statistics Canada also conducts more comprehensive revisions to the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts, which generally reflect new concepts, accounting treatments or methods. The paper An overview of the upcoming planned revisions to the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2013003/article/11816-eng.htm) outlines the scheduled revisions planned for 2013 to 2015.

Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts revision process and calendar: an overview (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2014001/article/11911-eng.htm) Statistical revisions are carried out regularly in the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA) in order to incorporate the most current information from censuses, annual surveys, administrative statistics, public accounts, etc., and to implement improved estimation methods.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2013

The 1981 to 2012 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2013004/article/11818-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 1981 to 2012 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2013. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Statistical revisions are regularly applied to the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts in order to incorporate the most current information from censuses, annual surveys, administrative statistics, public accounts, etc., and to implement improved estimation methods. Statistics Canada also conducts more comprehensive revisions to the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts, which generally reflect new concepts, accounting treatments or methods. The paper An overview of the upcoming planned revisions to the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2013003/article/11816-eng.htm) outlines the scheduled revisions planned for 2013 to 2015.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2013

The article Reconciliation of the United States-Canadian Current Account, 2010 and 2011 (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2013001/article/11772-eng.htm) presents the results of a reconciliation of the bilateral current account statistics of Canada and the United States for 2010 and 2011. Bilateral reconciliation exercises are useful for identifying potential improvements in measures of international transactions between trading partners.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2012

The note Reconciling Canadian-U.S. measures of household disposable income and household debt (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2012005/article/11748-eng.htm) provides users with a reconciliation between Canadian and U.S. measures of household disposable income, debt and the household credit market debt to disposable income ratio.

The article Revisions analysis - Canadian System of National Accounts 2012 (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2012002/article/11718-eng.htm) is the sixth of a series of articles helping users understand the changes introduced as a result of the historical revision of the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA). It provides users with a reconciliation between the previously published figures and the revised figures.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2012

The purpose of the document A new presentation for the quarterly National Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2012001/article/11671-eng.htm) is to introduce a new presentation of the quarterly National Accounts (Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA), Financial Flow Accounts (FFA) and National Balance Sheet Accounts (NBSA)) that will be published with the conversion of the Canadian National Accounts to the latest international standard—System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA2008).

Reference period of change - first quarter 2012

Canadian System of National Accounts Revision Policy (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2011001/article/11414-eng.htm) Statistical revisions are carried out regularly in the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA) in order to incorporate the most current information from censuses, annual surveys, administrative statistics, public accounts, etc., and to implement improved estimation methods.

The purpose of the document A new presentation for the quarterly National Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2012001/article/11671-eng.htm) is to introduce a new presentation of the quarterly National Accounts (Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA), Financial Flow Accounts (FFA) and National Balance Sheet Accounts (NBSA)) that will be published with the conversion of the Canadian National Accounts to the latest international standard—System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA2008).

Reference period of change - second quarter 2011

The paper A preview of the historical revision of the Canadian System of National Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2011003/article/11491-eng.htm) provides a preview of the historical (comprehensive) revision of the Canadian System National Accounts to be released beginning in May 2012. The last revision of this scope took place in 1997. The paper highlights the changes resulting from the adoption of SNA2008 which is the revised international standard for national accounting, along with statistical revisions arising from new and improved source data and methodologies. Updates to the classification systems used in the Canadian System of National Accounts are also presented along with a list of changes planned for 2014.

The 2008 to 2010 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2011002/article/11470-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2008 to 2010 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2011. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Canadian System of National Accounts Revision Policy (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2011001/article/11414-eng.htm) Statistical revisions are carried out regularly in the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA) in order to incorporate the most current information from censuses, annual surveys, administrative statistics, public accounts, etc., and to implement improved estimation methods.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2011

The 2008 to 2010 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2011002/article/11470-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2008 to 2010 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2011. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2010

The 2006 to 2009 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2010002/article/11163-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2006 to 2009 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2010. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Renewing the Canadian System of National Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2010001/article/11130-eng.htm) The majority of Canada's national, provincial and territorial macroeconomic indicators originate from the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA). These indicators include such things as Gross Domestic Product, Net Worth, Savings, Personal Disposable Income and Government Debt. Statistics Canada is launching a project that will make key changes to these macroeconomic indicators.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2009

The 2005 to 2008 revisions to the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2009001/article/11028-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2005 to 2008 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2009. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2009

The 2005 to 2008 revisions to the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2009001/article/11028-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering the period 2005 to 2008 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2009. These revised estimates incorporate the most current source data and seasonal patterns.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2008

The 2004 to 2007 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2008001-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2004 to 2007 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2008. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2007

The 2001-2006 revisions and rebasing to 2002 of the National Tourism Indicators (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007003-eng.htm)The National Tourism Indicators will be revised back to 2001 and their volume and price estimates converted to a 2002 reference year, effective June 29, 2007.

Canadian Economic Accounts re-referencing (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007002-eng.htm) Effective with the first quarter 2007 Income and Expenditure Accounts release on May 31, 2007, the expenditure-based gross domestic product (GDP) and associated components will be converted from a 1997 reference year to a 2002 reference year for its volume and price estimates.

The 2003-2006 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007004-eng.htm). Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2003 to 2006 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2007. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2007

Canadian Economic Accounts re-referencing (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007002-eng.htm) Effective with the first quarter 2007 Income and Expenditure Accounts release on May 31, 2007, the expenditure-based gross domestic product (GDP) and associated components will be converted from a 1997 reference year to a 2002 reference year for its volume and price estimates.

The 2004 to 2007 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2008001-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2004 to 2007 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2008. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

The 2001-2006 revisions and rebasing to 2002 of the National Tourism Indicators (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007003-eng.htm)The National Tourism Indicators will be revised back to 2001 and their volume and price estimates converted to a 2002 reference year, effective June 29, 2007.

Background and notes on the treatment in the National Accounts, including the Balance of Payments, of transactions resulting from the Softwood Lumber Agreement between Canada and the United States that was signed in October of 2006. Due to the unique nature of these transactions the note Softwood Lumber Agreement between Canada and the United States: National Accounts treatment (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007001-eng.htm) explains how funds were transacted and treated in various accounts of Canadian macro economic accounts.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2006

Background and notes on the treatment in the National Accounts, including the Balance of Payments, of transactions resulting from the Softwood Lumber Agreement between Canada and the United States that was signed in October of 2006. Due to the unique nature of these transactions the note Softwood Lumber Agreement between Canada and the United States: National Accounts treatment (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2007001-eng.htm) explains how funds were transacted and treated in various accounts of Canadian macro economic accounts.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2006

The 2002-2005 revisions of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/13-605-x2006003-eng.htm) Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2002 to 2005 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2006. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2003

The 1999-2002 revisions of the National Economic and Financial Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2003001/data-donnees/4066269-eng.htm) Following usual practice, revised estimates covering the period 1999 to 2002 of the National Economic and Financial Accounts were released along with those for the first quarter of 2003. This revision cycle incorporated statistical revisions only. There were no conceptual or methodological changes.

Reference period of change - first quarter 2003

The 1999-2002 revisions of the National Economic and Financial Accounts (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2003001/data-donnees/4066269-eng.htm) Following usual practice, revised estimates covering the period 1999 to 2002 of the National Economic and Financial Accounts were released along with those for the first quarter of 2003. This revision cycle incorporated statistical revisions only. There were no conceptual or methodological changes.

As of February 28, 2003 the Canadian System of National Accounts will adopt the following treatment of the Ontario electricity rate freeze and rebate (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2003001/concept/4151943-eng.htm). Funds financing the subsidy coming from Ontario Power Generation are considered remitted profits and form part of government income. The first instalment rebate paid to households is treated as transfers to persons.

Reference period of change - fourth quarter 2002

As of February 28, 2003 the Canadian System of National Accounts will adopt the following treatment of the Ontario electricity rate freeze and rebate (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2003001/concept/4151943-eng.htm). Funds financing the subsidy coming from Ontario Power Generation are considered remitted profits and form part of government income. The first instalment rebate paid to households is treated as transfers to persons.

In the fourth quarter of 2002, the Canadian Economic Accounts adopted the following treatment for The Ontario Electricity Rate Freeze and Rebate: Funds financing the subsidy coming from Ontario Power Generation are considered remitted profits and form part of government income. The first instalment rebate paid to households is treated as transfers to persons.

Reference period of change - second quarter 2002

"On May 31, 2002, the National Income and Expenditure Accounts will incorporate a number of conceptual changes. These changes relate to licenses and registrations, farm inventories, land transfer taxes and spectrum charges. These changes and other sources of revisions are described in an article ""The 2002 revisions of the National Economic and Financial Accounts"" (www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2003001/data-donnees/4066268-eng.htm).

Revised series
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Reference period of change - first quarter 2002

With the first quarter 2002 release, several conceptual changes were implemented within the National Income and Expenditure Accounts (NIEA) and carried back to 1981. (These included classification changes to Licences and Registrations, Land Transfer Taxes, and Spectrum Charges and the incorporation of the 1996 census results in Farm Inventories).

Reference period of change - first quarter 2001

Beginning with the first quarter 2001 data release, the labour income estimates are based on the North American Industry Classification (NAICS).

Business and government expenditures on software, which were treated as current expenses, have become capital expenditures. For information see: www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/SNA/expend.htm.

Estimation - The quarterly Income and Expenditure Accounts adopted the Fisher index formula, chained quarterly, as the official measure of real expenditure-based gross domestic product (GDP). There are two reasons for the adoption of this particular formula: it produces the most accurate measure of quarter-to-quarter growth in GDP and its components; and the change brings the Canadian measure in line with the U.S. quarterly Income and Product Accounts, which also use the chain Fisher formula to measure real GDP. For information see: www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/chainfisher/index.htm.

The concept of GDP at factor cost has been replaced by a new concept, GDP at basic prices. This concept includes indirect taxes on factors of production. For information see: www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/SNA/gdpbasic.htm.

Revisions and seasonal adjustment - The estimates of real GDP for Canada were converted from 1992 prices to 1997 prices with the first quarter release of 2001.

For more information on changes in the NIEA, see "Latest developments in the Canadian economic accounts", Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 13-605-XIE, free. The side bar menu of that electronic publication includes: chronology of events, conceptual changes, classifications changes, and data revisions.

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