Energy Research and Development Expenditures by Area of Technology

Research and development expenditure of institutional unit, category

Research and development expenditure refers to intramural research and development (R&D) expenditures (i.e., expenditures performed within the reporting unit). Both current costs and capital expenditures are measured. In the case of the government sector, expenditures refer to direct (i.e., those expenditures on pure R&D such as expenditures of a research lab) rather than indirect expenditures (i.e., those expenditures that support the R&D activity such as transportation, storage, cleaning, repair, and security). Depreciation is excluded.

Institutional unit refers to an economic entity that is capable, in its own right, of owning assets, incurring liabilities, and engaging in economic activities and in transactions with other entities. There is a hierarchical relationship between institutional units and establishments. An institutional unit contains one or more entire establishment(s); an establishment belongs to one and only one institutional unit. There are two main types of units in the real world that may qualify as institutional units, namely persons or groups of persons in the form of households, and legal or social entities.

The data for this variable are reported using the following classifications and/or lists:

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