North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2012

31-33 - Manufacturing

This sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in the chemical, mechanical or physical transformation of materials or substances into new products. These products may be finished, in the sense that they are ready to be used or consumed, or semi-finished, in the sense of becoming a raw material for an establishment to use in further manufacturing. Related activities, such as the assembly of the component parts of manufactured goods; the blending of materials; and the finishing of manufactured products by dyeing, heat-treating, plating and similar operations are also treated as manufacturing activities. Manufacturing establishments are known by a variety of trade designations, such as plants, factories or mills.

Manufacturing establishments may own the materials which they transform or they may transform materials owned by other establishments. Manufacturing may take place in factories or in workers' homes, using either machinery or hand tools.

Factoryless goods producers (FGPs) that completely outsource the transformation process but own the input materials are classified to the manufacturing sector. FGPs that completely outsource the transformation process but do not own the materials are classified to merchant wholesalers in Sector 41 Wholesale trade. These units are in fact buying the completed goods from the producer with the intention to resell it. These units may design the goods being manufactured, and may have some say in the manufacturing process.

Certain activities involving the transformation of goods are classified in other sectors. Some examples are post-harvest activities of agricultural establishments, such as crop drying; logging; the beneficiating of mineral ores; the production of structures by construction establishments; and various activities conducted by retailers, such as meat cutting and the assembly of products such as bicycles and computers.

Sales branches or offices (but not retail stores) maintained by manufacturing, refining, or mining enterprises apart from their plants or mines for the purpose of marketing their products are included in Sector 41 Wholesale trade as merchant wholesalers.

311 - Food manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing food for human or animal consumption.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing beverages or tobacco (See 312 Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing)

312 - Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing beverages and tobacco products.

313 - Textile mills

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing yarn or textile fabrics, or finishing yarn, textile fabrics or clothing. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing both fabrics and textile products, except knitted clothing, are included.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing textile products, except clothing, from purchased fabric (See 314 Textile product mills)
    • manufacturing clothing (See 315 Clothing manufacturing)

314 - Textile product mills

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing textile products, except clothing.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing yarn or textile fabrics, or finishing yarn or fabrics, or manufacturing both fabrics and textile products (See 313 Textile mills)

315 - Clothing manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing clothing.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • finishing clothing made in other establishments (See 313 Textile mills)
    • embroidering clothing not made in the same establishment (See 314 Textile product mills)
    • printing on articles of clothing not made in the same establishment (See 323 Printing and related support activities)
    • manufacturing safety clothing (See 339 Miscellaneous manufacturing)

316 - Leather and allied product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing leather and allied products.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing leather clothing (See 315 Clothing manufacturing)

321 - Wood product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing products from wood. There are three industry groups in this subsector, comprising establishments engaged in sawing logs into lumber and similar products, or preserving these products; making products that improve the natural characteristics of wood, by making veneers, plywood, reconstituted wood panel products or engineered wood assemblies; and making a diverse range of wood products, such as millwork.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • logging; and chipping logs in the field (See 113 Forestry and logging)
    • manufacturing wood pulp, paper and paper products (See 322 Paper manufacturing)
    • manufacturing wood kitchen cabinets and counters, and bathroom vanities (See 337 Furniture and related product manufacturing)
    • manufacturing wood signs and coffins (See 339 Miscellaneous manufacturing)

322 - Paper manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing pulp, paper and paper products. The manufacture of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibres from other impurities in wood, used paper or other fibre sources. The manufacture of paper involves matting these fibres into a sheet. Converted paper products are produced from paper and other materials by various cutting and shaping techniques.

323 - Printing and related support activities

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in printing and providing related support activities.

324 - Petroleum and coal product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in transforming crude petroleum and coal into intermediate and end products. The dominant process is petroleum refining, which separates crude petroleum into components or fractions through such techniques as cracking and distillation.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing chemicals and chemical preparations from refined petroleum and coal products (See 325 Chemical manufacturing)

325 - Chemical manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing chemicals and chemical preparations, from organic and inorganic raw materials.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • field processing of crude petroleum and natural gas (See 211 Oil and gas extraction)
    • beneficiating mineral ores (See 212 Mining and quarrying (except oil and gas))
    • processing crude petroleum and coal (See 324 Petroleum and coal product manufacturing)
    • smelting and refining ores and concentrates (See 331 Primary metal manufacturing)

326 - Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in making goods by processing raw rubber and plastics materials. Rubber and plastics-based activities are combined in the same subsector because the technical properties of these polymers are related.

Generally, establishments classified in this subsector manufacture products made of just one material, rubber or plastics, with the major exception of tire manufacturing.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing synthetic resins from basic organic chemicals (See 325210 Resin and synthetic rubber manufacturing)
    • compounding plastics resins from recycled materials (See 325991 Custom compounding of purchased resins)

327 - Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing non-metallic mineral products. These establishments cut, grind, shape and finish granite, marble, limestone, slate and other stone; mix non-metallic minerals with chemicals and other additives; and heat non-metallic mineral preparations to make products, such as bricks, refractories, ceramic products, cement and glass.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • beneficiating non-metallic minerals (See 212 Mining and quarrying (except oil and gas))

331 - Primary metal manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in smelting and refining ferrous and non-ferrous metals from ore, pig or scrap in blast or electric furnaces. Metal alloys are made with the introduction of other chemical elements. The output of smelting and refining, usually in ingot form, is used in rolling and drawing operations to produce sheet, strip, bars, rods and wire, and in molten form to produce castings and other basic metal products.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing metal forgings or stampings (See 332 Fabricated metal product manufacturing)

332 - Fabricated metal product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in forging, stamping, forming, turning and joining processes to produce ferrous and non-ferrous metal products, such as cutlery and hand tools, architectural and structural metal products, boilers, tanks and shipping containers, hardware, spring and wire products, turned products, and bolts, nuts and screws.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing metal products by rolling, drawing, extruding, alloying or casting (See 331 Primary metal manufacturing)

333 - Machinery manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial and commercial machinery. These establishments assemble parts into components, subassemblies and complete machines. They may make the parts themselves, using general metal-working processes, or purchase them.

Establishments tend to specialize in producing machinery designed for particular applications, and this is reflected in the structure of the industry groups and industries. A broad distinction exists between general-purpose machinery, that is designed to be used in a variety of industrial applications, such as pumping or machining, and special-purpose machinery, that is designed to be used in a particular industry, such as agriculture or printing. The first three industry groups consist of establishments that produce special-purpose machinery. Establishments that produce general-purpose machinery are classified in the remaining industry groups.

Establishments primarily engaged in rebuilding machinery are included in the same industry as establishments manufacturing the particular type of new machinery. Unless otherwise specified, establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing parts, designed for use solely or principally with a particular machine, are classified in the same industry as establishments manufacturing that type of machinery.

334 - Computer and electronic product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing computers, computer peripheral equipment, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, as well as components for such products. The computer and electronic product manufacturing industries employ production processes that are characterized by the design and use of integrated circuits and the application of highly specialized miniaturization technologies.

335 - Electrical equipment, appliance and component manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing products that generate, distribute and use electrical power.

336 - Transportation equipment manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing equipment for transporting people and goods. The industry groups are based on the various modes of transport - road, rail, air and water. Three industry groups are based on road transportation equipment - for complete vehicles, for body and trailer manufacture and for parts.

Establishments primarily engaged in rebuilding equipment and parts are included in the same industry as establishments manufacturing new products.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing equipment designed for moving materials and goods on industrial sites, construction sites, in logging camps and other off-highway locations (See 333 Machinery manufacturing)

337 - Furniture and related product manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing furniture and related products. The processes used in the manufacture of furniture are standard methods of forming materials and assembling components, including cutting, moulding and laminating. The design of the article, for both aesthetic and functional qualities, is an important aspect of the production process. Design services may be performed by the furniture establishment's own work force or may be purchased from industrial designers. Furniture is classified based on the application for which it is designed. For example, an upholstered sofa is treated as household furniture, although it may also be used in hotels or offices.

Furniture is also classified according to the component material from which it is made. Furniture made from more than one material is classified based on the material used in the frame, or if there is no frame, the predominant component material. Upholstered household furniture is classified as such, without regard to the frame material.

Furniture may be produced on a stock or custom basis and may be shipped assembled or unassembled (knockdown). Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing furniture frames and parts are included.

  • Exclusion(s)

    • manufacturing furniture hardware (See 332 Fabricated metal product manufacturing)
    • manufacturing seating for transportation equipment (See 336 Transportation equipment manufacturing)
    • manufacturing laboratory and hospital furniture (See 339 Miscellaneous manufacturing)
    • repairing, refinishing and reupholstering furniture (See 811 Repair and maintenance)

339 - Miscellaneous manufacturing

This subsector comprises establishments, not classified to any other subsector, primarily engaged in manufacturing activities. These establishments manufacture a diverse range of products, such as medical equipment and supplies, jewellery, sporting goods, toys and office supplies.

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