Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth (CKIR)

Detailed information for 2015-2016





Record number:


The Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth monitors trends in correctional populations and provides a basis for calculating incarceration rates based on the Canadian population. This survey describes average counts of adults and youth under custody and under community supervision, who are under the responsibility of provincial/territorial correctional services.

Data release - March 1, 2017


The primary focus of the Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth is on one aspect of correctional caseload data, namely, average counts. Counts are a major operational indicator and are used to describe the number of custodial inmates or offenders serving a sentence in the community at a given point in time. Typically, inmates are counted several times during the day, minimally at every shift change, although the midnight count is generally used as the indicator of the bed utilization space within an institution. Counts of offenders under community supervision are taken at month-end.

The use of key indicator data is particularly important for monitoring trends in correctional populations. These data assist policy makers and corrections managers in formulating decisions based upon historical comparisons. Key indicator data also give some indication of current trends and demands and provide a basis for calculating incarceration rates based on the Canadian population.

Statistical activity

The survey is currently administered as part of the National Justice Statistics Initiative (NJSI). Since 1981, the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Deputy Ministers responsible for the administration of justice in Canada, with the Chief Statistician, have been working together in an enterprise known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative. The mandate of the NJSI is to provide information to the justice community as well as the public on criminal and civil justice in Canada. Although this responsibility is shared among Federal, Provincial and Territorial departments, the lead responsibility for the development of Canada's statistical system remains with Statistics Canada.

Reference period: Fiscal year (April 1 to March 31)


  • Children and youth
  • Correctional services
  • Crime and justice
  • Crime and justice (youth)

Data sources and methodology

Target population

This survey describes the monthly average counts of adults and youths in custody under the responsibility of provincial/territorial and federal correctional services as well as the month-end counts of offenders under the responsibility of provincial/territorial probation services.

Instrument design

The Corrections Key Indicator Report data collection requirements were developed with the assistance of representatives from the federal, provincial and territorial agencies responsible for the delivery of correctional services in Canada.


This survey is a census with a cross-sectional design.

Data are collected for all units of the target population, therefore no sampling is done.

Data sources

Data collection for this reference period: 2016-05-02 to 2016-12-30

Responding to this survey is mandatory.

Data are collected directly from survey respondents, extracted from administrative files and derived from other Statistics Canada surveys and/or other sources.

The Correctional Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth (CKIR) collects administrative data from provincial/territorial and federal correctional services. Using data from local operational systems, respondents complete a questionnaire. These data are collected under the authority of the Statistics Canada Act, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985, Chapter S-19.

Error detection

Data for the CKIR are reviewed by survey staff on their receipt to identify missing or partial responses. The incoming cell counts are compared to the same cells from earlier years to check for outliers and general consistency. Automated error procedures are not applied to the results of this aggregate survey, partly due to the small number of respondents. However, issues that arise are reported to the local data suppliers to assess whether there is a problem and the actions to be taken.


As the Corrections Key Indicator Report is an administrative census with a 100% response rate, imputation is not normally required. When respondents are not able to provide all counts for all categories, the data remain not available.


This methodology type does not apply to this statistical program.

Quality evaluation

The incoming data are assessed for completeness, historical consistency, the existence of outliers and reasonability. Survey staff contact individual jurisdictions regarding problems discovered after initial data processing. Respondents are asked to verify their data.

The products from this survey are subject to both institutional and peer (respondents, heads of correctional services, etc.) review.

Disclosure control

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any data which would divulge information obtained under the Statistics Act that relates to any identifiable person, business or organization without the prior knowledge or the consent in writing of that person, business or organization. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

The survey does not collect individual person data and the statistics reported are based on average values. It is not possible to relate a data value to a person.

No data suppression currently takes place.

Revisions and seasonal adjustment

Time series adjustments are not required for the information on average daily custody counts or month-end probation counts.

Data accuracy

This survey collects census data as extracted and compiled by provincial/territorial and federal correctional services programs. Formal data quality indicators, beyond annual respondent verification and review for accuracy and consistency, are not part of the survey methodology.

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