Vital Statistics - Birth Database

Detailed information for 2012





Record number:


This is an administrative survey that collects demographic information annually from all provincial and territorial vital statistics registries on all live births in Canada.

Data release - February 10, 2016


This is an administrative survey that collects demographic information annually from all provincial and territorial vital statistics registries on all live births in Canada. Starting in 2012, births to mothers residing in Canada occurring in the United States are no longer collected.

The data are used to calculate basic indicators (such as counts and rates) on births of residents of Canada. Information from this database is also used in the calculation of statistics, such as age-specific fertility rates.

For Canada as a whole, it was impossible to compile a satisfactory series of vital statistics prior to 1921. Eight provinces initially joined the cooperative Canadian vital statistics system, leading to the publication of the first annual report for Canada in 1921; that report included Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. Quebec began to participate in 1926 and Newfoundland in 1949 (after joining Confederation) and their data were included in the tabulations from those years onward. Basic data from the Yukon and Northwest Territories were published as appendices to the national tables from 1924 to 1955; their data were first included in the regular tabulations in 1956. Nunavut came into being officially as a Territory of Canada on April 1, 1999. The name Northwest Territories applies to a Territory with different geographic boundaries before and after April 1, 1999.

Prior to 1944 all vital events were classified by place of occurrence. Since 1944, births, stillbirths, and deaths have been classified by area of reported residence, with births and stillbirths according to the residence of the mother.

Reference period: Calendar year

Collection period: From the beginning of the reference period until six months after the end of the reference period


  • Births and deaths
  • Health
  • Population and demography
  • Pregnancy and births

Data sources and methodology

Target population

The conceptual universe of the Birth database is births to Canadian resident women anywhere in the world.

The target population of the Birth database is births to Canadian resident women in Canada.


This survey is a census with a cross-sectional design.

No sampling is done.

Data sources

Responding to this survey is mandatory.

Data are extracted from administrative files.

Provincial and territorial Vital Statistics Acts (or equivalent legislation) render compulsory the registration of all live births, stillbirths, deaths and marriages within their jurisdictions. These Acts follow, as closely as possible, a Model Vital Statistics Act that was developed to promote uniformity of legislation and reporting practices among the provinces and territories.

The Canadian Vital Statistics system operates under an agreement between the Government of Canada and governments of the provinces and territories. The Vital Statistics Council for Canada, an advisory committee set up by an Order-in-Council, oversees policy and operational matters. All provincial and territorial jurisdictions and Statistics Canada are represented on the Vital Statistics Council. Under the agreement, all registrars collect a specified set of data elements, although any of them may decide to collect additional information.

The main form for the registration of a live birth is completed by the parents, who are responsible for filing it with the local registrar. Most provinces and territories also require physicians (or other birth attendants) report all births.

The central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory provides data from birth registrations to Statistics Canada. The following statistical data items are reported for each birth by all provinces and territories for inclusion in the Canadian Vital Statistics system (non-exhaustive list):

- Date and place of birth
- Child's sex, birth weight and gestational age
- Parents' age, marital status and birthplace
- Mother's place of residence
- Type of birth (single or multiple)
- Parity

All jurisdictions supply microfilm copies or optical images or paper copies of death registration forms to Statistics Canada. In addition, all provinces supply electronic abstracts of registrations, which contain the required standard information.

Starting with the data for reference year 2008, the electronic transfer was performed by sending the data via the National Routing System (NRS) according to Statistics Canada standards. The effective date for this method of transmission varies by province.

For the territories, the required standard information on paper is converted to electronic format at Statistics Canada.

Subsequent changes to registrations due to errors, amendments or omissions are transmitted to Statistics Canada as the information becomes available. However, changes received after a cut-off date are not reflected in published tabulations.

The population estimates used for the 2012 birth and fertility rate calculations are the July 1, 2012 postcensal estimates released in September, 2014.

Error detection

Provinces and territories that supply machine-readable data conduct edits (edit validation and data consistency) before transmitting their data, based on standard edit specifications prepared by Statistics Canada. Health Statistics Division has actively promoted the use of a standard data dictionary and standard correlation edits for provincial/territorial data entry. More extensive edit routines are applied to the data by Statistics Canada to ascertain the completeness and quality of the data. After the preparation of a preliminary data file, verification tables are prepared for data review by the registries and Statistics Canada (for example, distributions, large changes, percentage and number of unknowns, outliers and changes in the relative composition).

The last comprehensive study of the quality of data capture and data coding was done in 1981, when error rates for most variables were found to be quite low. Since then, studies have been completed on an irregular basis for specific provinces. The most recent study was done in 2002 on the 2000 Prince Edward Island birth data following their development of a new data capture system. A systematic random sample of records was drawn, and the Prince Edward Island capture was compared with the microfilmed documents. Inconsistencies were documented, and a report was sent to the Prince Edward Island Vital Statistics Registrar. Overall, the error rate was zero for most of the important statistical variables (sex of child, age of mother, total number of children, and multiple births indicators).

The only birth data regularly captured at Statistics Canada are from the three territories. Operations and Integration Division maintains data capture quality controls and performs 20% verification of captured data to maintain an error rate of less than 3%.


Imputation was done for any missing province or territory of residence, sex of the child, and age and date of birth of the mother. Missing data on province or territory of residence in Canada were imputed to the province or territory of occurrence. Missing data on sex were imputed based on the distribution of births in recent years. Missing age values were imputed based on the date of birth (if provided) or by imputing the age value to the median age observed for the mother's province of residence. Missing dates of birth were imputed using a decision table based on the mother's age and the date of birth of the child. In general, these imputations affect few records annually.

Quality evaluation

Upon completion of the annual national birth data base (produced as described in the section Error Detection above), Statistics Canada carries out a series of quality checks that include: 1) producing a set of verification tables which consist of basic tabulations for the majority of variables in the data base by province or territory of occurrence; 2) sending the verification tables to each provincial/territorial registrar of vital statistics for their review and approval that Statistics Canada and the registry obtain the same results; 3) checking for internal consistencies, for example, running frequencies and looking for outliers on certain data elements; and 4) comparing the most recent data year with past data years to detect any unusual or unexpected changes. Comparisons of tabulated data are made with vital statistics data published by the provinces and territories, where available.

Disclosure control

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects which could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

Data accuracy


Since the registration of births is a legal requirement in each Canadian province and territory, reporting is virtually complete. Under-coverage is thought to be minimal, but is being monitored. Under-coverage may occur because of late registration, which, if not completed soon after birth, is needed for school registration. Statistics Canada does receive late registrations (typically 1,000 to 1,500 cases, five years after the year of the event). Incomplete registration is also a source of under-coverage. For example, some provinces require that a notarized statement be completed when a mother declines to name the father on the application for birth registration. Until the statement is notarized, the application is not registered.

Non-registration and over-coverage are minimal. For over-coverage, births to non-resident women in Canada are registered but are excluded from most tabulation. Duplicate birth registrations are identified as part of the regular processing operations on each provincial and territorial subset, as well as additional inter-provincial checks, and comparisons between the birth and stillbirth databases for multiple births. Possible duplicate registrations are checked against microfilmed registrations or optical images, or by consulting with the provinces and territories.

Other Accuracy Issues

Low birth weight/low gestation data

Health Statistics Division continues to monitor developments in the field of assisted reproductive technology and medical technology as they relate to the reporting of extremely low birth weight and/or low gestation babies. There is some inconsistency in the practice of registering these babies, even though there is a legal requirement to do so. Statistically, this problem has resulted in alternative indicators for infant mortality being calculated, where the denominator is composed of live births weighing 500 g or more.


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