Survey of Adventure Travel Operations in Canada

Detailed information for 1999




One Time

Record number:


Statistics Canada is conducting this survey on behalf of the Canadian Tourism Commission, which will use the results to produce and up-to-date and comprehensive study of the adventure travel sector in Canada.

Data release - May 9, 2001


The objective of this study is to produce statistical information on the revenues, costs, investments, employment and markets of the firms engaged in adventure travel in Canada. The survey covers a range of topics on the adventure travel industry, such as products and facilities available, traveler origins and demographics, advertising and promotional activities, employment, technology, financial data, and constraints to growth.

This survey is being conducted on behalf of the Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC). The survey is part of a broader CTC study to assess the state of Adventure Travel Operations in Canada.

Collection period: October 2000 to January 2001


  • International travel
  • Travel and tourism

Data sources and methodology

Target population

The survey frame of adventure travel operators in Canada is provided by CTC. Statistics Canada conducts a census of all travel operators listed on the survey frame.

The target population of this survey includes all operations in Canada offering adventure travel activities, where adventure travel activities are the main activity and main source of revenue for the company. The adventure travel sector does not include sports activities (e.g., golf or downhill skiing), nor does it include hunting or fishing due to their particular market appeal and their consumptive use of resources. Adventure activity is defined as:

"an outdoor leisure activity that takes place in an unusual, exotic, remote or wilderness destination, could involve some form of unconventional means of transportation, and tends to be associated with high levels of activity from which each individual draws personal satisfaction from some unusual sight, activity or accomplishment."

Adventure activities are classified as follows:

Instrument design

The questionnaire is designed by Small Business and Special Surveys Division of Statistics Canada in consultation with the Canadian Tourism Commission and the provincial tourism departments it represents. The questionnaire is pilot tested beforehand with selected adventure travel operators to ensure the questionnaire is adequate, clear and easy to use.


This survey is a census.

Data sources

Responding to this survey is voluntary.

Data are collected directly from survey respondents.

The questionnaire is a mail out/mail back survey. The questionnaire is mailed to all adventure travel operators in the survey frame. Respondents are given the choice to complete the questionnaire and send it back by mail or fax, or else complete the questionnaire over the phone with a representative from Statistics Canada. Follow-up calls to non-respondents start a month after the mail out, and continue for two months.

View the Questionnaire(s) and reporting guide(s) .

Error detection

Completed questionnaires are first manually edited. Any inconsistent or incomplete information fails the edit quality checks. Edit failures are resolved through telephone follow-up with respondents.

After the manual editing, an automated editing system is used to check all variables for missing values.


Deterministic and donor methods of imputation are used to impute non-response. The deterministic method is used when the missing value can be imputed from other responses within the same record. For example, total revenue is missing, but responses are available for all components revenue. The components of revenue responses are added to derive total revenue. If the missing values cannot be imputed from the same record, the donor method is used; non-response is imputed from the completed records of a donor selected from a prescribed pool of donors. Donors and receivers are matched based on total revenue and number of employees. The donor imputation process is divided into four sections; in each section, a pool of donors and receivers are compiled based on missing values for that particular section. This allows for a larger pool of donors for each missing value: if donors are limited to records with no missing values at all, the pool of donors would be relatively small, since most records require some imputation.

Ratio imputation is used when the sum of qualitative variables (percentages) do not add to 100%, or when quantitative variables (financial data) do not add to the total given by the respondent. These variables are proportionally adjusted so that they either add to 100% or to the given total. For example, if a respondent reported 65% of its customers were male and 40% were female (for a total of 105%), the responses are adjusted to 61.9% and 38.1% respectively through ratio imputation.

Quality evaluation

The survey is an activity based survey, not industry based, therefore it is difficult to find comparable information.

Disclosure control

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects which could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

Confidentiality analysis includes the detection of possible direct disclosure, which occurs when the value in a tabulation cell is composed of a few respondents or when the cell is dominated by a few companies.

Data accuracy

A full description on data accuracy is provided in the attached document.

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